Gauging Teachers’ Needs with Regard to Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) of 21st Century Skills in the Classroom

  • Ellen Rusman
  • Alejandra Martínez-Monés
  • Jo Boon
  • María Jesús Rodríguez-Triana
  • Sara Villagrá-Sobrino
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 439)


Several trends in society have led to a request towards schools to integrate 21st Century Skills and technology enhanced formative assessment (TEFA) in their curricula. Although there are frameworks defined at an international level, implementation of technology enhanced formative assessment of 21st Century Skills at school level is seldom. This paper explores the underlying reasons for this hampered implementation by consulting and collaborating with teachers. It provides an overview of these reasons and proposes a collaborative professionalization approach to overcome detected implementation barriers and challenges.


Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) formative assessment 21st Century Skills teacher professionalization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ananiadou, K., Claro, M.: 21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 41. OECD Publishing (2009), doi:10.1787/21852526115Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gordon, J., Halasz, G., Krawczyk, M., Leney, T., Michel, A., Pepper, D.: Key competences in Europe: Opening doors for lifelong learners across the school curriculum and teacher education, Warsaw, Poland, pp. 1–328 (2009), (retrieved)
  3. 3.
    Surry, D.W., Ely, D.P.: Adoption, diffusion, implementation, and institutionalization of instructional innovations. In: Reiser, R.A., Dempsey, J.V. (eds.) Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology, 2nd edn., pp. 104–111. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Busuttil-Reynaud, G., Winkley, J.: JISC e-Assessment Glossary, Bristol (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    JISC: Effective Assessment in a Digital Age. A guide to technology-enhanced assessment and feedback. Bristol (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Black, P.J., Wiliam, D.: Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability (formerly the Journal of Personal Evaluation in Education) 21(1), 5–31 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wiliam, D., Thompson, M.: Integrating assessment with instruction: What will it take to make it work? In: Dwyer, C.A. (ed.) The Future of Assessment: Shaping Teaching and Learning, pp. 53–82. Erlbaum, Mahwah (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chan, C.C.K., van Aalst, J.: Learning, assessment and collaboration in computer supported environments. In: Dillenbourg, P. (Series ed.), Strijbos, J.W., Kirschner, P.A., Martens, R.L. (Vol. eds.) Computer-supported Collaborative Learning: vol. 3, What We Know About CSCL: and Implementing it in Higher Education, pp. 87–112. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gulikers, J.T.M., Bastiaens, T.J., Kirschner, P.A.: A five-dimensional framework for authentic assessment. Educational Technology Research and Development 52(3), 67–85 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    JISC: Effective Practice in e-Assessment. An overview of technologies, policies and practice in further and higher education, Bristol (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rusman, E., Boon, J., Martínez-Monés, A., Rodríguez-Triana, M.J., Retalis, S.: Towards the Use of New Methods for Formative e-Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Schools. In: Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) Workshop, Paphos, Cyprus, September 17-21 (2013), at EC-TEL 2013,
  12. 12.
    PREATY project: D1.1.: State of the art report on modern assessment approaches and tools. Public deliverable (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prieto, L.P., Villagrá-Sobrino, S., Jorrín-Abellán, I.M., Martínez-Monés, A., Dimitriadis, Y.: Recurrent routines: Analyzing and supporting orchestration in technology-enhanced primary classrooms. Computers & Education 57(1), 1214–1227 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    CNIIE, Guía para la formación en centros sobre las competencias básicas (2013) (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Atlántida project (2014), (last access: March 27, 2014)
  16. 16.
    European Communities, Key Competences for Lifelong Learning - A European Framework. Luxembourg (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Binkley, M., Erstad, O., et al.: Defining Twenty-First Century Skills. In: Griffin, P., McGaw, B., Care, E. (eds.) Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills, pp. 17–66. Springer, Dordrecht (2012), doi:10.1007/978-94-007-2324-5, ISBN: 978-94-007-2323-8 e-ISBN 978-94-007-2324-5Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Whitelock, D.: Activating Assessment for Learning: are we on the way with Web 2.0? In: Lee, M.J.W., McLoughlin, C. (eds.) Web 2.0-Based E-Learning: Applying Social Informatics for Tertiary Teaching. IGI Global (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ellen Rusman
    • 1
  • Alejandra Martínez-Monés
    • 2
  • Jo Boon
    • 1
  • María Jesús Rodríguez-Triana
    • 2
  • Sara Villagrá-Sobrino
    • 2
  1. 1.Welten InstituteOpen University of the NetherlandsHeerlenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.GSIC-EMIC GroupUniversidad de ValladolidValladolidSpain

Personalised recommendations