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Design of Robust Controllers for Load Reduction in Wind Turbines

  • Asier Díaz de CorcueraEmail author
  • Aron Pujana-Arrese
  • Jose M. Ezquerra
  • Aitor Milo
  • Joseba Landaluze
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Industrial Control book series (AIC)

Abstract

This chapter proposes a methodology to design robust control strategies for wind turbines. The designed controllers are robust, multivariable and multi-objective to guarantee the required levels of stability and performance considering the coupling of the wind turbine. The proposed robust controllers generate collective pitch angle, individual pitch angle and generator torque control signals to regulate the electrical power production in the above rated power production zone and to mitigate the loads in the components of the wind turbines, like the drive train, tower, hub or blades, to increase their lifetime. The synthesis of these controllers is based on the H norm reduction and gain scheduling control techniques via Linear Matrix Inequalities. A wind turbine non-linear model has been developed in the GH Bladed software package and it is based on a 5 MW wind turbine defined in the Upwind European project. The family of linear models extracted from the linearization process of the non-linear model is used to design the proposed robust controllers. The designed controllers have been validated in GH Bladed and an exhaustive analysis has been carried out to calculate fatigue load reduction on wind turbine components, as well as to analyze load mitigation in some extreme cases.

Keywords

Wind turbine Robust control Multivariable control H control Load mitigation 

Nomenclature

An,Bn,Cn,Dn

State space matrices of system n

aTfa

Tower top fore-aft acceleration

aTss

Tower top side-to-side acceleration

C

Coleman transformation

C−1

Anti-Coleman transformation

Dux

Scalar constant in the control x channel

Dex

Scalar constant in the output x channel

Ddx

Scalar constant in the disturbance x channel

ewg

Generator speed error

Kopt

Optimum constant in below rated zone

Moop

Blade root out-of-plane moment

Mflap

Blade root flapwise moment

Medge

Blade root edgewise moment

Mtilt

Tilt moment in the rotor plane

Myaw

Yaw moment in the rotor plane

p

Varying parameter

T

Generator torque

TDTD

Torque contribution from drive train damping filter

Tbr

Torque set-point in below rated zone

Tsp

Generator torque set-point

Unc

Uncertainty

wg

Generator speed

βsp

Pitch angle set-point

βcol

Collective pitch angle

Βfa

Pitch contribution from tower fore-aft damping filter

βtilt

Pitch tilt angle in the rotor plane

βyaw

Pitch yaw angle in the rotor plane

\(\psi\)

Azimuth angle

θT

Twist angle in the blade root section

Notes

Acknowledgments

The material used in this chapter was partly supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and European FEDER funds (research project DPI2012-37363-C02-02).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asier Díaz de Corcuera
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aron Pujana-Arrese
    • 1
  • Jose M. Ezquerra
    • 1
  • Aitor Milo
    • 1
  • Joseba Landaluze
    • 1
  1. 1.IK4-IKERLANArrasate-MondragonSpain

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