Gain Scheduled H Control of Wind Turbines for the Entire Operating Range

  • Fernando A. Inthamoussou
  • Fernando D. BianchiEmail author
  • Hernán De Battista
  • Ricardo J. Mantz
Part of the Advances in Industrial Control book series (AIC)


Two different operating modes can be clearly identified in wind turbine control systems. In low wind speeds, the main control objective is the energy capture maximization, whereas in high wind speeds it is desired to regulate turbine power and speed at their rated values. The fulfillment of these different control objectives implies the transition through low controllability operating conditions that impose severe constraints on the achievable performance. The control task is usually tackled using two separate controllers, one for each operating mode, and a switching logic. Although satisfactory control solutions have been developed for low and high wind speeds, controller design needs refinement in order to improve performance in the transition zone. This chapter overviews a control scheme covering the entire operating range with focus on the transition zone. H and advanced anti-windup techniques are exploited to design a high performance control solution for both operating modes with optimum performance in the transition zone.


Anti-windup Gain-scheduling control H optimal control Robust control Wind turbines control 



Pitch angle


Pitch angle command


Optimum pitch angle


Torsion angle




Optimum tip-speed-ratio


Air density


Time constant of the pitch actuator


Generator speed


Rated rotational speed


Rotor speed


Intrinsic rotor damping


Drive-train damping


Power coefficient

\(C_{{P_{\hbox{max} } }}\)

Maximum power coefficient


Generator inertia


Rotor inertia


Drive-train stiffness

\(k_{\beta }\)

Torque-pitch gain


Gain-scheduling gain


Torque-wind speed gain


Gear-box ratio


Rotor power


Rated power


Rotor radius


Generator torque


Rated torque


Aerodynamic torque


Shaft torque


Wind speed


Rated wind speed

\({\parallel }G(s){\parallel }_{\infty }\)

Denotes the \(\infty\)-norm of the stable system with transfer function \(G(s)\)


Denotes steady-state value of x


Denotes variation with respect to the steady-state value of x


Denotes \({\text{d}}x/{\text{d}}t\)



The research of F.A. Inthamoussou, H. De Battista, and R.J. Mantz was supported by Universidad Nacional de La Plata (project 11/I164 2012/15), CONICET (PIP 00361 2012/14), CICpba and ANPCyT (PICT 2012-0037 2013/16) of Argentina. The research of F.D. Bianchi was supported by the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF, FEDER Programa Competitivitat de Catalunya 2007–2013).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando A. Inthamoussou
    • 1
  • Fernando D. Bianchi
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hernán De Battista
    • 1
  • Ricardo J. Mantz
    • 3
  1. 1.CONICET and Instituto LEICI, Facultad de IngenieríaUniversidad Nacional de La PlataLa PlataArgentina
  2. 2.Catalonia Institute for Energy ResearchIRECSant Adrià de BesòsSpain
  3. 3.CIC and Instituto LEICI, Facultad de IngenieríaUniversidad Nacional de La PlataLa PlataArgentina

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