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Vibration Mitigation of Wind Turbine Towers with Tuned Mass Dampers

  • Okyay AltayEmail author
  • Francesca Taddei
  • Christoph Butenweg
  • Sven Klinkel
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Industrial Control book series (AIC)

Abstract

Because of its minor environmental impact, electricity generation using wind power is getting remarkable. The further growth of the wind industry depends on technological solutions to the challenges in production and construction of the turbines. Wind turbine tower vibrations, which limit power generation efficiency and cause fatigue problems with high maintenance costs, count as one of the main structural difficulties in the wind energy sector. To mitigate tower vibrations auxiliary measures are necessary. The effectiveness of tuned mass damper is verified by means of a numeric study on a 5 MW onshore reference wind turbine. Hereby, also seismic-induced vibrations and soil–structure interaction are considered. Acquired results show that tuned mass damper can effectively reduce resonant tower vibrations and improve the fatigue life of wind turbines. This chapter is also concerned with tuned liquid column damper and a semiactive application of it. Due to its geometric versatility and low prime costs, tuned liquid column dampers are a good alternative to other damping measures, in particular for slender structures like wind turbines.

Keywords

Structural control Tuned mass damper Tuned liquid column damper Semiactive Soil–structure interaction 

Nomenclature

In appearance order:

\(\delta_{s} ,\,\delta_{A}\)

Logarithmic damping decrement-Structural and aerodynamic

D

Damping ratio

KFSCFSMFS

Stiffness, damping coefficient, and mass of the foundation-soil system

SFS

Dynamic stiffness of foundation-soil system

\(\Omega\)

Excitation frequency

uFPF

Displacement and harmonic loading of foundation

GSρSυS

Shear modulus, density, and Poisson’s ratio of soil

rF

Equivalent radius of foundation

\(\theta_{\varphi } ,\,\theta_{\varphi z}\)

Rocking and torsional mass moments of inertia of foundation

KxKyKzKφz

Stiffness coefficients of foundation-soil system

CxCyCzCφz

Damping coefficients of foundation-soil system

fD

Natural frequency of tuned mass damper/tuned liquid column damper

\(\mu^{ * }\)

Mass ratio between tuned mass damper and modal mass of structure

fH

Natural frequency of structure

fD,optDD,opt

Optimal frequency and damping ratio of tuned mass damper/tuned liquid column damper

\(u,\,\dot{u},\,\ddot{\it{u}}\)

Displacement, velocity, and acceleration of liquid column motion of tuned liquid column mass damper

\(\delta_{\text{P}}\)

Pressure loss

\(\omega_{D}\)

Fundamental circular frequency of tuned mass damper/tuned liquid column damper

\(\gamma_{1} ,\,\gamma_{2}\)

1. and 2. geometric factor of tuned liquid column damper

\(\ddot{\it{x}} + \ddot{\it{x}}_{g} ,\,x + x_{g}\)

Acceleration and displacement of structure caused by base excitation

L1L2

1. and 2. effective length of liquid column

\(\alpha\)

Angle of the liquid column

V, H

Vertical and horizontal length of the liquid column

AV, AH

Area of the vertical and horizontal liquid column

\(D_{H} ,\,\omega_{H}\)

Damping ratio and fundamental circular frequency of structure

μ

Mass ratio between tuned liquid column damper and modal mass of structure

f(t)

Dynamic excitation force

kactcact

Stiffness and damping coefficient of seismic actuator

mtf

Total mass of turbine and foundation

\(\varOmega_{\text{act}}\)

Frequency of seismic actuator

fg(t)

Seismic excitation force

\(x_{g,0} ,\,\dot{x}_{g,0}\)

Realized seismic foundation motions

\(x_{g,seis} ,\,\dot{x}_{g,seis}\)

Desired seismic foundation motions

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research work is funded by the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Okyay Altay
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francesca Taddei
    • 1
  • Christoph Butenweg
    • 1
  • Sven Klinkel
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Civil Engineering, Chair of Structural Analysis and DynamicsRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

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