Comparative Studies

  • Felipe Richter ReisEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series (BRIEFSAPPLSCIENCES)


This chapter is the longest and probably the most important for the decision-making between the available drying techniques. Several vacuum drying techniques are compared to each other and to conventional drying techniques in terms of product quality and engineering aspects. Vacuum drying usually provided better results than conventional processes, such as hot air drying, in terms of product quality. Nevertheless, hot air drying is still cheaper than vacuum drying and depending on the product value it could be more interesting to use a cheaper drying technique. The differences between conventional vacuum drying, freeze-drying and microwave-vacuum drying are elucidated and quantified. New processes of subatmospheric drying that have been developed during the last years are also presented. A search in electronic databases shows that vacuum and conventional drying processes for foods have been compared since the 1940s and this fashion of research remains popular until nowadays. Definitely, this chapter is very useful for entrepreneurs and researchers interested in choosing the most suitable drying technique for a selected food product.


Vacuum drying Freeze-drying Microwave-vacuum drying Hot air drying 


  1. 1.
    Acevedo NC, Briones V, Buera P et al (2008) Microstructure affects the rate of chemical, physical, and color changes during storage of dried apple discs. J Food Eng 85:222–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alibas I (2009) Microwave, vacuum, and air drying characteristics of collard leaves. Dry Technol 27:1266–1273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Antal T, Figiel A, Kerekes B et al (2011) Effect of drying methods on the quality of the essential oil of spearmint leaves (Mentha spicata L.). Dry Technol 29:1836–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Calín-Sánchez A, Figiel A, Lech K et al (2013) Effects of drying methods on the composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil. Dry Technol 31:224–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Caro-Corrales JJ, Zazueta-Niebla JA, Ordorica-Falomir CA et al (2005) Controlled low-temperature vacuum dehydration and tunnel drying: a comparative study. Int J Food Prop 8:529–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cui Z-W, Xu SY, Sun D-W (2003) Dehydration of garlic slices by combined microwave-vacuum and air drying. Dry Technol 7:1173–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cui Z-W, Xu S-Y, Sun D-W (2004) Effect of microwave-vacuum drying on the carotenoids retention of carrot slices and chlorophyll retention of Chinese chive leaves. Dry Technol 22:563–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deng Y, Zhao Y (2008) Effect of pulsed vacuum and ultrasound osmopretreatments on glass transition temperature, texture, microstructure and calcium penetration of dried apples (Fuji). LWT-Food Sci Technol 41:1575–1585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Devahastin S, Suvarnakuta P, Soponronnarit S et al (2004) A comparative study of low-pressure superheated steam and vacuum drying of a heat-sensitive material. Dry Technol 22:1845–1867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dunlap WC Jr (1946) Vacuum drying of compressed vegetable blocks. Ind Eng Chem 38:1250–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Giri SK, Prasad S (2007) Drying kinetics and rehydration characteristics of microwave-vacuum and convective hot-air dried mushrooms. J Food Eng 78:512–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grabowski S, Marcotte M, Poirier M et al (2002) Drying characteristics of osmotically pretreated cranberries: energy and quality aspects. Dry Technol 20:1989–2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hawlader MNA, Perera CO, Tian M et al (2006) Drying of guava and papaya: impact of different drying methods. Dry Technol 24:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hiranvarachat B, Suvarnakuta P, Devahastin S (2008) Isomerisation kinetics and antioxidant activities of β-carotene in carrots undergoing different drying techniques and conditions. Food Chem 107:1538–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hossain MB, Barry-Ryan C, Martin-Diana AB et al (2010) Effect of drying method on the antioxidant capacity of six Lamiaceae herbs. Food Chem 123:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huang L-I, Zhang M, Mujumdar AS et al (2011) Comparison of four drying methods for re-structured mixed potato with apple chips. J Food Eng 103:279–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    King VAE, Zall RR, Ludington DC (1989) Controlled low-temperature vacuum dehydration—a new approach for low-temperature and low-pressure food drying. J Food Sci 54:1573–1579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Krokida MK, Kiranoudis CT, Maroulis ZB (1999) Viscoelastic behavior of dehydrated products during rehydration. J Food Eng 40:269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krokida MK, Maroulis ZB, Saravacos GD (2001) The effect of the method of drying on the colour of dehydrated products. Int J Food Sci Tech 36:53–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li Y, Xu S-Y, Sun D-W (2007) Preparation of garlic powder with high allicin content by using combined microwave-vacuum and vacuum drying as well as microencapsulation. J Food Eng 83:76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lin TM, Durance TD, Scaman CH (1998) Characterization of vacuum microwave, air and freeze dried carrot slices. Food Res Int 31:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu P, Zhang M, Mujumdar AS (2012) Comparison of three microwave-assisted drying methods on the physiochemical, nutritional and sensory qualities of re-structured purple-fleshed sweet potato granules. Int J Food Sci Tech 47:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maache-Rezzoug Z, Rezzoug SA, Allaf K (2001) Kinetics of drying and hydration of the scleroglucan polymer. A comparative study of two conventional drying methods with a new drying process: dehydration by successive pressure drops. Dry Technol 19:1961–1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maroulis ZB, Tsami E, Marinos-Kouris D et al (1988) Application of the GAB model to the sorption isotherms of dried fruits. J Food Sci 7:63–78Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Martínez-Soto G, Ocaña-Camacho R, Paredes-López O (2001) Effect of pretreatment and drying on the quality of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Dry Technol 19:661–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nimmanpipug N, Therdthai N, Dhamvithee P (2013) Characterization of osmotically dehydrated papaya with further hot air drying and microwave vacuum drying. Int J Food Sci Tech 48:1193–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Panyawong S, Devahastin S (2007) Determination of deformation of a food product undergoing different drying methods and conditions via evolution of a shape factor. J Food Eng 78:151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Purnama M, Yaghmaee P, Durance TD et al (2010) Porosity changes and retention of ginsenosides in North American ginseng root using different dehydration processes. J Food Sci 75:E487–E492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Qing-guo H, Min Z, Mujumdar AS et al (2006) Effect of different drying methods on the quality changes of granular edamame. Dry Technol 24:1025–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rahman MS, Al-Amri OS, Al-Bulushi IM (2002) Pores and physico-chemical characteristics of dried tuna produced by different methods of drying. J Food Eng 53:301–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rahman MS, Al-Shamsi QH, Bengtsson GB et al (2009) Drying kinetics and allicin potential in garlic slices during different methods of drying. Dry Technol 27:467–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rodríguez R, Lombraña JI, Kamel M et al (2005) Kinetic and quality study of mushroom drying under microwave and vacuum. Dry Technol 23:2197–2213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sansiribhan S, Devahastin S, Soponronnarit S (2012) Generalized microstructural change and structure-quality indicators of a food product undergoing different drying methods and conditions. J Food Eng 109:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schulze B, Hubbermann EM, Schwarz K (2014) Stability of quercetin derivatives in vacuum impregnated apple slices after drying (microwave vacuum drying, air drying, freeze-drying) and storage. LWT-Food Sci Technol 57:426–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sunjka PS, Rennie TJ, Beaudry C et al (2004) Microwave-convective and microwave-vacuum drying of cranberries: a comparative study. Dry Technol 22:1217–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Suvarnakuta P, Devahastin S, Mujumdar AS (2005) Drying kinetics and β-carotene degradation in carrot undergoing different drying processes. J Food Sci 70:S520–S526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thomkapanich O, Suvarnakuta P, Devahastin S (2007) Study of intermittent low-pressure superheated steam and vacuum drying of a heat-sensitive material. Dry Technol 25:205–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tsami E, Krokida MK, Drouzas AE (1999) Effect of drying method on the sorption characteristics of model fruit powders. J Food Eng 38:381–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vashisth T, Singh RK, Pegg RB (2011) Effect of drying on the phenolics content and antioxidant activity of muscadine pomace. LWT-Food Sci Technol 44:1649–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang Y, Zhang M, Mujumdar AS (2013) Study of drying uniformity in pulsed spouted microwave-vacuum drying of stem lettuce slices with regard to product quality. Dry Technol 31:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Xu S, Kerr WL (2012) Comparative study of physical and sensory properties of corn chips made by continuous vacuum drying and deep fat frying. LWT-Food Sci Technol 48:96–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yaghmaee P, Durance T (2007) Efficacy of vacuum microwave drying in microbial decontamination of dried vegetables. Dry Technol 25:1109–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yan W-Q, Zhang M, Huang L-L et al (2010) Studies on different combined microwave drying of carrots pieces. Int J Food Sci Tech 45:2141–2148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yang W-C (2003) Particle characterization and dynamics. In: Yang W-C (ed) Handbook of fluidization and fluid particle system. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yanyang X, Min Z, Mujumdar AS et al (2004) Studies on hot air drying and microwave vacuum drying of wild cabbage. Dry Technol 22:2201–2209CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Technician CourseInstituto Federal do ParanáJacarezinhoBrazil

Personalised recommendations