Parkinson’s Disease: An Overview of Etiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Treatment

  • Arif DalviEmail author
  • Kelly E. Lyons
  • Rajesh Pahwa


The clinical understanding of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has expanded from that of a tremor disorder to a complex neuropsychiatric disease with motor and non-motor symptoms. Treatment options likewise have expanded from levodopa to also include monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitors, dopamine agonists, and surgical treatment in the form of deep brain stimulation (DBS). While the etiology remains unknown, there is a consensus that both genetics and environmental factors play a role.


Deep Brain Stimulation Multiple System Atrophy Dementia With Lewy Body Essential Tremor Motor Fluctuation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders ProgramMethodist Hospital Neuroscience InstituteMerrillvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA

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