Advertisement

The History of Immunology

  • Milton W. TaylorEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Immunology begins with Edward Jenner’s discovery that vaccination with cowpox protects against smallpox. That there was an immune response was confirmed by the observations of many scientists that the same disease did not return a second time to a recovered individual. With the recognition by Friedrich Henle that germs caused disease, and the isolation of infectious bacteria by his pupil Robert Koch, the stage was set to examine how an immune response was achieved. Modern immunology begins with the research of Metchnikoff, who discovered the phenomenon of phagocytosis in starfish and extrapolated it to macrophages in humans as cells that engulf infectious agents; this was the beginning of cellular immunology. Paul Ehrlich investigated the formation of antibodies recognized as later as proteins that destroyed infectious agents. However, an explanation of how antibodies were formed and selected was puzzling. Did the body have enough genes to code for every type of antibody, and did specific cells produce antibodies, or did each cell have the ability to produce antibodies to any challenging molecule? Following the work of Karl Landsteiner, Felix Haurowitz, Niels Jerne and others, the “clonal selection theory” was proposed by MacFarlane Burnett. This theory states that each B-cell produces one type of antibody, and once activated, it expands and produces memory cells. Meanwhile, work on cellular immunity and innate immunity recognized the role of various types of T-cells, dendritic cells and cytokines in the immune response. New classes of T-cells and cytokines are constantly being found, and there is an intricate connection between these three branches of the immune system.

Keywords

Diphtheria Toxin Complement Cascade Splice Mechanism Polio Virus Rockefeller Institute 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Spoel, S. H., & Dong, X. (2012). How do plants achieve immunity? Defence without specialized immune cells. Nature Reviews Immunology, 12(2), 89–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tauber, A. I., & Chernyak, Leon. (1991). Metchnikoff and the origins of immunology: From metaphor to theory. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Avery, O. T., & Heidelberger, M. (1923). Immunological relationships of cell constituents of Pneumococcus. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 38(1), 81–85.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heidelberger, M., Avery, O. T., & Goebel, W. F. (1929). A soluble specific substance derived from gum arabic. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 49(5), 847–857.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kabat, E. A., & Heidelberger, M. (1937). A quantitative theory of the precipitin reaction: V. The reaction between crystalline horse serum albumin and antibody formed in the rabbit. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 66(2), 229–250.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kabat, E. A. (1970). Heterogeneity and structure of antibody-combining sites. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 169(1), 43–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Landsteiner, K., & van der Scheer, J. (1940). On Cross Reactions of Egg Albumin Sera. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 71(4), 445–454.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burnett, F. M. (1949). Production of antibodies. London: Macmillan & Co.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burnet, F. M., & Fenner, F. (1948). Genetics and immunology. Heredity, 2(3), 289–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jerne, N. K. (1955). The natural-selection theory of antibody formation. Proceedings of National Academy Science USA, 41(11), 849–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abbas, A. K., & Janeway, C. A, Jr. (2000). Immunology: improving on nature in the twenty-first century. Cell, 100(1), 129–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hodgkin, P. D., Heath, W. R., & Baxter, A. G. (2007). The clonal selection theory: 50 years since the revolution. Nature Immunology, 8(10), 1019–1026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Snell, G. D. (1979). Recent advances in histocompatibility immunogenetics. Which Publication?, 20, 291–355.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zinkernagel, R. M., & Doherty, P. C. (1974). Restriction of in vitro T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in lymphocytic choriomeningitis within a syngeneic or semiallogeneic system. Nature, 248(450), 701–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Landsteiner, K., & Chase, M. W. (1941). Studies on the sensitization of animals with simple chemical compounds: IX. Skin sensitization induced by injection of conjugates. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 73(3), 431–438.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Landsteiner, K., & Chase, M. W. (1940). Studies on the sensitization of animals with simple chemical compounds: VII. Skin sensitization by intraperitoneal injections. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 71(2), 237–245.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Landsteiner, K., & Chase, M. W. (1939). Studies on the sensitization of animals with simple chemical compounds: VI. Experiments on the sensitization of guinea pigs to poison ivy. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 69(6), 767–784.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Landsteiner, K., & Chase, M. W. (1937). Studies on the sensitization of animals with simple chemical compounds: IV. Anaphylaxis induced by picryl chloride and 2:4 dinitrochlorobenzene. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 66(3), 337–351.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Glick, B., Chang, T. S., & Jaap, R. G. (1956). The bursa of fabricius and antibody production. Poultry Science, 35, 224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miller, J. F., Brunner, K. T., Sprent, J., Russell, P. J., & Mitchell, G. F. (1971). Thymus-derived cells as killer cells in cell-mediated immunity. Transplantation Proceedings, 3(1), 915–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Claman, H. N. (1966). Human thymus cell cultures-evidence for two functional populations. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 121(1), 236–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Claman, H. N., Chaperon, E. A., & Triplett, R. F. (1966). Thymus-marrow cell combinations. Synergism in antibody production. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 122(4), 1167–1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mosier, D. E. (1967). A requirement for two cell types for antibody formation in vitro. Science, 158(3808), 1573–1575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mitchell, G. F., & Miller, J. F. (1968). Cell to cell interaction in the immune response. II. The source of hemolysin-forming cells in irradiated mice given bone marrow and thymus or thoracic duct lymphocytes. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 128(4), 821–837.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mitchell, G. F., & Miller, J. F. (1968). Immunological activity of thymus and thoracic-duct lymphocytes. Proceedings National Academy Sci USA, 59(1), 296–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marrack, P., Hannum, C., Harris, M., Haskins, K., Kubo, R., Pigeon, M., et al. (1983). Antigen-specific, major histocompatibility complex-restricted T cell receptors. Immunological Reviews, 76, 131–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Davis, M. M., Chien, Y. H., Gascoigne, N. R., & Hedrick, S. M. (1984). A murine T cell receptor gene complex: isolation, structure and rearrangement. Immunological Reviews, 81, 235–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bonecchi, R., Bianchi, G., Bordignon, P. P., D’Ambrosio, D., Lang, R., Borsatti, A., et al. (1998). Differential expression of chemokine receptors and chemotactic responsiveness of type 1 T helper cells (Th1s) and Th2s. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 187(1), 129–134.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Favre, D., Mold, J., Hunt, P. W., Kanwar, B., Loke, P., Seu, L., et al. (2010). Tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 alters the balance of TH17 to regulatory T cells in HIV disease. Science Translational Medicine, 2(32), 32–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shi, Z., Curiel, D. T., & Tang, D. C. (1999). DNA-based non-invasive vaccination onto the skin. Vaccine, 17(17), 2136–2141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tang, D. C., Shi, Z., & Curiel, D. T. (1997). Vaccination onto bare skin. Nature, 388(6644), 729–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Takeda, K., & Akira, S. (2004). TLR signaling pathways. Seminars in Immunology, 16(1), 3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology (p. 223). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-07145-4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations