• Milton W. TaylorEmail author


There are many viruses that cause hepatitis. In this chapter we discuss three of them: hepatitis A (jaundice), hepatitis B (serum hepatitis), and hepatitis C. Hepatitis A is an acute infection, whereas hepatitis B and C are blood-borne diseases and cause chronic infections and eventually cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Outbreaks of hepatitis A were once very common in most of the world, since it was spread by unsanitary conditions Hepatitis A disrupted military campaigns throughout the ages. A vaccine is now available, and hepatitis A has almost disappeared from the developed world. A recombinant vaccine has also been developed against hepatitis B, resulting in a decline in cases. A vaccine is not yet available for hepatitis C, although there is active research in this area. Until recently Hepatitis C was routinely treated with a combination of interferon and ribavirin, which had severe side effects and low cure rates. This treatment is being replaced by nucleotides/nucleosides analogues that inhibit viral protein processing and replication enzymes. The large numbers of hepatitis B cases in the world are due to sexual transmission and mother-to-child transfer. The sharing of needles when using recreational drugs, blood transfusions, and unsanitary tattoo parlors—all these spread hepatitis C. All three viruses infect millions of people worldwide.


Sustained Viral Response Serum Hepatitis Pomegranate Seed Yellow Fever Vaccine Sustained Viral Response Rate 
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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

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