Norm’s Benefit Awareness in Open Normative Multi-agent Communities: A Conceptual Framework

  • Al-Mutazbellah Khamees ItaiwiEmail author
  • Mohd Sharifuddin Ahmad
  • Moamin A. Mahmoud
  • Alicia Y. C. Tang
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 290)


In open normative multi-agent communities, agents adopt new norms to increase their utilities. Several studies have developed mechanisms for agents to adopt new norms. These mechanisms are based on sanction, imitation, or social learning. The limitation of these mechanisms is that over time all agents follow the new norms, while in a real situation, usually there is a number of agents that persistently violate the norms for their benefits. We consider that intelligent agents should adopt new norms based on their awareness of the norms’ expected benefits on their utilities and not only by sanctions or imitating other agents. Consequently, this paper presents a conceptual framework for agents’ awareness of norms’ benefits in open normative multi-agent communities. In the proposed framework, four components constitute agents’ awareness of norms’ benefits which are Norm’s Adoption Ratio; Norm’s Yields; Norm’s Trust, and Norm’s Morality. Using these components, however, agents would be able to evaluate the benefits of detected norms and subsequently determine whether the norms increase or decrease their utilities for eventual adoption or rejection.


Social Norm Normative Systems Norms Benefit Awareness Normative Multi-agent Systems Software Agents 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hollander, C., Wu, A.: The Current State of Normative Agent-Based Systems. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14(2), 6 (2011a)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alberti, M., Gomes, A.S., Gonçalves, R., Leite, J., Slota, M.: Normative Systems Represented as Hybrid Knowledge Bases. In: Leite, J., Torroni, P., Ågotnes, T., Boella, G., van der Torre, L. (eds.) CLIMA XII 2011. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 6814, pp. 330–346. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Broersen, J., Dastani, M., van der Torre, L.W.N.: Resolving Conflicts Between Beliefs, Obligations, Intentions, and Desires. In: Benferhat, S., Besnard, P. (eds.) ECSQARU 2001. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2143, pp. 568–579. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sadri, F., Stathis, K., Toni, F.: Normative KGP agents. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory 12(2), 101–126 (2006)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ahmad, A., Ahmed, M.M., Yusoff, M.Z., Ahmad, M.S., Mustapha, A.: Resolving Conflicts between Personal and Normative Goals in Normative Agent Systems. In: The Seventh International Conference on IT in Asia 2011 (CITA 2011), Kuching, Sarawak, July 12-14, pp. 153–158 (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boella, G., Hulstijn, J., van der Torre, L.: Interaction in normative multi-agent systems. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 141(5), 135–162 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alchourron, C.E., Bulygin, E.: Normative Systems. Springer (1971)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mahmoud, M.: Norms Detection and Assimilation in Open Normative Multi-agent Communities. PhD Thesis, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mahmoud, M.A., Ahmad, M.S., Ahmad, A., Mustapha, A., Yusoff, M.Z., Hamid, N.H.: Obligation and Prohibition Norms Mining Algorithm for Normative Multi-agent Systems. In: Barbucha, D., Le, M.T., Howlett, R.J., Jain, L.C. (eds.) Advanced Methods and Technologies for Agent and Multi-Agent Systems. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, pp. 115–124. IOS Press (2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Savarimuthu, B.T.R.: Mechanisms for norm emergence and norm identification in multi-agent societies (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). University of Otago (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Epstein, J.: Learning to be thoughtless: Social norms and individual computation. Computational Economics 18(1), 9–24 (2001)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    López, y López: Social Powers and Norms: Impact on Agent Behaviour. PhD thesis, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, United Kingdom (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mahmoud, M.A., Ahmad, M.S., Ahmad, A., Mustapha, A., Yusoff, M.Z., Hamid, N.H.: Building Norms-Adaptable Agents from Potential Norms Detection Technique (PNDT). International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies (IJIIT) 9(3), 38–60 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sen, S., Airiau, S.: Emergence of norms through social learning. In: Proceedings of IJCAI 2007, pp. 1507–1512 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bosse, T., Gerritsen, C., Klein, M.C.A.: Agent-Based Simulation of Social Learning in Criminology. In: Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Agents and AI, ICAART 2009, pp. 5–13 (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Criadoa, N., Argentea, E., Noriega, P.B., Botti, V.: MaNEA: A distributed architecture for enforcing norms in open MAS. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 26(1), 76–95 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hexmoor, H., Venkata, S.G., Hayes, D.: Modelling social norms in multiagent systems. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 18(1), 49–71 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Andrighetto, G., Governatori, G., Noriega, P., van der Torre, L.W., Balke, T., da Costa Pereira, C., Krueger, I.: Normative Multi-Agent Systems (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Savarimuthu, B.T.R., Cranefield, S., Purvis, M., Purvis, M.: Norm Identification in Multi-agent Societies. Discussion Paper, department of Information Science. University of Otago (2010a)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Savarimuthu, B.T.R., Cranefield, S., Purvis, M., Purvis, M.: Obligation Norm Identification in Agent Societies. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 13(4) (2010b)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oren, N., Meneguzzi, F.: Norm Identification through Plan Recognition. In: Proceedings of COIN 2013@AAMAS (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Al-Mutazbellah Khamees Itaiwi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohd Sharifuddin Ahmad
    • 2
  • Moamin A. Mahmoud
    • 2
  • Alicia Y. C. Tang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Graduate StudiesUniversiti Tenaga NasionalSelangorMalaysia
  2. 2.College of Information TechnologyUniversiti Tenaga NasionalKajangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations