An Empirical Assessment of Guttman’s Lambda 4 Reliability Coefficient

  • Tom BentonEmail author
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics book series (PROMS, volume 89)


Numerous alternative indices for test reliability have been proposed as being superior to Cronbach’s alpha. One such alternative is Guttman’s L4. This is calculated by dividing the items in a test into two halves such that the covariance between scores on the two halves is as high as possible. However, although simple to understand and intuitively appealing, the method can potentially be severely positively biased if the sample size is small or the number of items in the test is large.

To begin with this paper compares a number of available algorithms for calculating L4. We then empirically evaluate the bias of L4 for 51 separate upper secondary school examinations taken in the UK in June 2012. For each of these tests we have evaluated the likely bias of L4 for a range of different sample sizes. The results show that the positive bias of L4 is likely to be small if the estimated reliability is larger than 0.85, if there are less than 25 items and if a sample size of more than 3,000 is available. A sample size of 1,000 may be sufficient if the estimate of L4 is above 0.9.


Assessment Reliability Split-half Lambda 4 Bias Sample size 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cambridge AssessmentCambridgeUK

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