SMART VIEW: A Serious Game Supporting Spatial Orientation of Subjects with Cognitive Impairments

  • Rosa Maria Bottino
  • Andrea Canessa
  • Michela Ott
  • Mauro Tavella
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8514)


The paper presents SMART VIEW a serious game developed with the aim of helping young people with moderate cognitive disabilities acquire those spatial abilities that are key prerequisites to autonomous mobility. The game was conceived for cognitively impaired teenagers; it proposes exercises supporting the acquisition and consolidation of competences related to space awareness and self-perception in the space; such skills are necessary to develop the sense of spatial orientation, which is critical for the target population. SMART VIEW makes use of Touch Screen tables so to allow easier access to the game content and augmented interaction. Particular attention has been devoted to the game interface design, so to make it free from cognitive barriers and fully accessible to the target population. Contents are as close as possible to reality and the educational strategy entails slow and gradual increase of the game complexity, so to properly sustain the users’ cognitive effort.


Serious Games Spatial Orientation Cognitive Disabilities Perspective Taking E-inclusion Technology Enhanced Learning 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Mengue-Topio, H., Courbois, Y., Farran, E.K., Sockeel, P.: Route learning and shortcut performance in adults with intellectual disability: A study with virtual environments. Research in Developmental Disabilities 32, 345–352 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tolman, E.C.: Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men. Psychol. Rev. 55, 189–208 (1948)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Golledge, R.: Cognition of physical and built environments. In: Garling, T., Evans, G. (eds.) Environment, Cognition and Action; a Multidisciplinary Integrative Approach, Oxford University Press, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Golledge, R.: Wayfinding behavior: cognitive mapping and other spatial processes. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kitchin, R., Freundschuh, S.: Cognitive mapping: Past, Present and Future. Routledge, London (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Taylor, H.A., Tversky, B.: Perspective in spatial descriptions. Journal of Memory and Language 35, 371–391 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rose, F.D., Attree, E.A., Brooks, B.M., Parslow, D.M., Penn, P.R., Ambihipahan, N.: Training in virtual environments: transfer to real world tasks and equivalence to real task training. Ergonomics 43(4), 494–511 (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Torrente, J., del Blanco, Á., Moreno-Ger, P., Fernández-Manjón, B.: Designing Serious Games for Adult Students with Cognitive Disabilities. In: Huang, T., Zeng, Z., Li, C., Leung, C.S. (eds.) ICONIP 2012, Part IV. LNCS, vol. 7666, pp. 603–610. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brown, D.J., Shopland, N., Lewis, J.: Flexible and virtual travel training environments. In: Proc. 4th Intl. Conf. Disability, Virtual Reality & Assoc. Tech., Veszprém, Hungary (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown, D.J., Battersby, S., Shopland, N.: Design and evaluation of a flexible travel training environment for use in a supported employment setting. International Journal of Disability and Human Development 4(3), 251–258 (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lloyd, J., Powell, T.E., Smith, J., Persaud, N.V.: Use of a virtual-reality town for examining route-memory, and techniques for its rehabilitation in people with acquired brain injury. In: Proc. 6th Intl Conf. Disability, Virtual Reality & Assoc. Tech., Esbjerg, Denmark, pp. 167–174 (2006) ISBN 07 049 98 65 3Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sánchez, J.H., Sáenz, M.A.: Assisting the mobilization through subway networks by users with visual disabilities. In: Proc. 6th Intl Conf. Disability, Virtual Reality & Assoc. Tech., Esbjerg, Denmark, pp. 183–190 (2006) ISBN 07 049 98 65 3Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    da Costa, R., de Carvalho, L., de Aragon, D.F.: Virtual reality in cognitive training. In: Proc. 3rd International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality & Associated Technology, Alghero, Italy, pp. 221–224 (2000)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tam, S.F., Man, D.W.K., Chan, Y.P., Sze, P.C., Wong, C.M.: Evaluation of a computer-assisted, 2-D virtual reality system for training people with intellectual disabilities on how to shop. Rehabilitation Psychology 50(3), 285–291 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yip, B.C.B., Man, D.W.K.: Virtual reality (VR)-based community living skills training for people with acquired brain injury: a pilot study. Brain Injury 23(13-14), 1017–1026 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rose, F.D., Brooks, B.M., Attree, E.A.: An exploratory investigation into the usability and usefulness of training people with learning disabilities in a virtual environment. Disability and Rehabilitation 24, 627–633 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brooks, B.M., Rose, F.D., Attree, E.A., Elliot-Square, A.: An evaluation of the efficacy of training people with learning disabilities in a virtual environment. Disability and Rehabilitation 24, 622–626 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Meneghetti, C., Fiore, F., Borella, E., De Beni, R.: Learning a map environment: the role of visuo-spatial abilities in young ond older adults. Appl. Cognit. Psychol. 25(6), 952–959 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Michael, D.R., Chen, S.L.: Serious Games: Games that Educate, Train, and Inform. Muska & Lipman/Premier-Trade (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Surtees, A., Apperly, I., Samson, D.: Similarities and differences in visual and spatial perspective-taking processes. Cognition 129, 426–438 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Surtees, A., Apperly, I., Samson, D.: The use of embodied self-rotation for visual and spatial perspective-taking. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 698 (2013), doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hirai, M., Muramatsu, Y., Mizuno, S., Kurahashi, N., Kurahashi, H., Nakamura, M.: Developmental changes in mental rotation ability and visual perspective-taking in children and adults with Williams syndrome. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 856 (2013), doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Michelon, P., Zacks, J.M.: Two kinds of visual perspective taking. Percept. Psychophys. 68, 327–337 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bottino, R.M., Ott, M., Benigno, V.: Digital Mind Games: Experience-Based Reflections on Design and Interface Features Supporting the Devlopment of Reasoning Skills. In: Proc. 3rd European Conference on Game Based Learning, pp. 53–61 (2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wood, D., Bruner, J.S., Ross, G.: The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 17, 89–100 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hamilton, A.F., de, C., Brindley, R., Frith, U.: Visual perspective taking impairment in children with autistic spectrum disorder. Cognition 113, 37–44 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ott, M., Tavella, M.: A contribution to the understanding of what makes young students genuinely engaged in computer-based learning tasks. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 1, 184–188 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa Maria Bottino
    • 1
  • Andrea Canessa
    • 1
  • Michela Ott
    • 1
  • Mauro Tavella
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Educational Technologies, CNRGenoaItaly

Personalised recommendations