Advertisement

Conserving Trail Corridors: The Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail

  • Elizabeth ThomasEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)

Abstract

Recreation-based land conservation provides numerous benefits for recreationists, local communities (by attracting tourism), the ecosystem (by protecting habitat), and migrating wildlife (by establishing corridors). This study examines the social and decision process along the Pacific Crest Trail (PCT), a 4265-km-long hiking trail beginning at the US–Mexico border and ending at the US–Canada border, and the trail’s 1.6-km-wide corridor. The trail enters 3 states, 7 national parks, Native American sovereignties, 25 national forests, 33 wildernesses, and at least 73 towns and is subject to the local, state, and federal restrictions and regulations of each jurisdiction. This study of the PCT appraises land use decisions along the PCT as they apply to meeting the common interest and advancing human dignity. Using the policy sciences framework, this case study examines the trail through a problem-oriented approach and concludes that decision making can better meet the common interest by further engaging participants at the local level and taking a bottom-up approach. In order to ensure that decisions regarding the public land and the public resource of the trail meet common interest goals across the range and scale, it is proposed that participants should engage in many localized, community-based, adaptive governance models based on interactive participation among all stakeholders. Many small-scale prototypes can serve as adaptive governance models for implementation along a national scenic trail.

Keywords

Large-scale conservation Trails Recreation Conservation Land management Public lands Forest service Gateway communities Public–private partnership Adaptive management 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was made possible through financial support from the Doris Duke Conservation Fellowship and the Yale Masters Travel Fund. I am grateful to Susan Clark, Erin Savage, Catherine Picard, Aaron M. Hohl, and Brian Davidson for reviewing drafts. Special thanks to Beth Boyst and the staff at the PCTA, American Hiking Society, the Appalachian Mountain Club, the Appalachian Trail Conservancy, the Catamount Trails Association, Connecticut Forests & Parks Association, Green Mountain Club, Kingdom Trails Association, Vermont Association of Snow Travelers and the agency representatives, local people, businesses, and users who shared their stories and insight to make this chapter possible.

References

  1. Alta Planning (2008) Pacific Crest trail land protection inventory. http://www.altaplanning.com/pacific+crest+trail.aspx. Accessed 1 April 2010
  2. American Long Distance Hiking Association (2009) Advice. http://www.aldha.org/ethics.html. Accessed 15 April 2010
  3. Anderson L (2002) Benton MacKaye: conservationist, planner, and creator of the Appalachian trail: creating the North American landscape. John Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson K (2006) A socio-cultural assessment of the inholders along the Appalachian trail in the state of New Hampshire, American Land Rights Association. http://www.landrights.org/ocs/SocioCultural/AppalachianTrailInholders_1.html. Accessed 17 March 2010
  5. Bowker JM, Bergstrom JC, Gill JK (2007) Estimating the economic value and impacts of recreational trails: a case study of the Virginia Creeper trail. Tour Econ 13(2):241–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunner RD, Steelman TA, Coe-Juell L, Cromley CM, Edwards CM, Tucker DW (eds) (2005) Adaptive governance: integrating science, policy, and decision making. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark S (2002) The policy process: a practical guide for natural resource professionals. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  8. Cole T (24 February 1985) Appalachian trail’s rerouting disputed. Los Angeles TimesGoogle Scholar
  9. Egbert B (2013) Pacific Crest trail finds itself wildly popular this year. San Jose Mercury, 7 June. http://www.mercurynews.com/ci_23387926/pacific-crest-trail-finds-itself-wildly-popular-this. Accessed 13 Oct 2013
  10. Fitzsimmons K (2012) Reforming federal land management: cutting the Gordian knot. Rowman and Littlefield, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  11. Forde T (7 May 2010) Dangerous devices planted on Pacific Crest trail. Tehachapi NewsGoogle Scholar
  12. Glaser BG, Strauss AL (2009) The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Transaction Publishers, PiscatawayGoogle Scholar
  13. Holt T (2013) “Wild” brings out more Pacific Crest trail hikers. Redding record searchlight, October 12. http://www.redding.com/news/2013/oct/12/wild-brings-out-more-pacific-crest-trail-hikers. Accessed 13 Oct 2013
  14. Jordan EJ, Vogt CA, Kruger LE, Grewe N (2013) The interplay of governance, power and citizen participation in community tourism planning. J Policy Res Tour Leis Events 5(3):270–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Larabee M (2008) At risk: the Pacific Crest trail. Oregonian, October 5, http://www.oregonlive.com/opinion/index.ssf/2008/10/at_risk_the_pacific_crest_trai.html. Accessed 13 Oct 2009
  16. Lasswell HD, McDougal MS (1992) Jurisprudence for a free society. New Haven Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  17. Lloyd J (2 August 1990) Trail guards: never-ending battle to preserve our hiking trails. USA Today 10CGoogle Scholar
  18. MacKaye B (1919) Employment and natural resources. Possibilities of making new opportunities for employment through the settlement and development of agricultural and forest lands and other resources. Washington Print Office. Department of Labor, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  19. Mittlefehldt S (2010) The people’s path: conflict and cooperation along the Appalachian trail. Environ Hist 15:643–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mittlefehldt S (2013) Tangled roots: the Appalachian trail and American environmental politics. University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  21. Nash R (1982) Wilderness and the American mind. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  22. National Park Service (1995) Economic impacts of protecting rivers, trails, and greenway corridors: a resource book. National Park Service, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  23. National Park Service (2006) Metacomet Monadnock Mattabesett trail system. National Park Service Northeast Region, BostonGoogle Scholar
  24. Newsome D, Gentry B (eds) (2009) Broadening the base through open space: addressing demographic trends by saving land and serving people. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Bulletin No. 19, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  25. Pacific Crest Trail Association (2009) Strategic plan 2007–2009. www.pcta.org/about_pcta/strategicplan.pdf. Accessed 3 Sept 2009
  26. Pacific Crest Trail Association (2010) About the Pacific Crest trail. www.pcta.com. Accessed 30 Sept 2008, 17 May 2010
  27. Pacific Crest Trail Association (2013) Media fact sheet. http://www.pcta.org/about-us/media/media-fact-sheet/. Accessed 19 Feb 2014
  28. Pimbert MP, Pretty JN (1995) Parks, people, and professionals: putting “participation” into protected areas management. Discussion Paper No 57. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  29. Ramsayer K (14 October 2007) Scenic trail: designated but not fully protected. Bulletin C8Google Scholar
  30. Ramsayer K (13 December 2008) 217-mile natural gas pipeline in feds’ hands. BulletinGoogle Scholar
  31. Rufus J (3 May 2009) Hikers’ Angel aims for trail bus. Antelope Valley PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Schaffer J (2003a) The Pacific Crest trail: Southern California. Wilderness Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  33. Schaffer J (2003b) The Pacific Crest trail: Northern California. Wilderness Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  34. Schaffer J (2003c) The Pacific Crest trail: Oregon and Washington. Wilderness Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  35. Simon C, Dobra J (2003) Local government perspectives of federal land management. Land Use Policy 20:275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Solomon C (18 October 2013) The call of the “wild” on the Pacific Crest trail. New York Times. Accessed 18 Oct 2013Google Scholar
  37. Stankey GH (1979) A framework for social behavioral research-applied issues. In: Burch WR Jr (ed) Long distance trails: the Appalachian trail as a guide to future research and management needs. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  38. Steelman TA, DuMond M (2009) Serving the common interest in U.S. Forest Policy: a case study of the Healthy Forests Restoration Act. Environ Manage 43:396–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Swenson S (7 May 2010) Officials work to remove nail-studded devices from the Pacific Crest trail. Bakersfield CalifornianGoogle Scholar
  40. Trust for Public Land (1995) Doing deals. Trust for Public Land and Land Trust Alliance Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  41. UC Berkeley Research News (2010) Citris researchers deploy IT tools to help monitor California water supply. http://vcresearch.berkeley.edu/news/citris-researchers-deploy-it-tools-help-monitor-california-water-supply. Accessed 1 Oct 2011
  42. US Bureau of Land Management (1982) Managing the nation’s public lands: a program report prepared pursuant to requirements of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. Bureau of Land Management, US Dept. of the Interior, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  43. US Census Data (2000) US Census Bureau. Data for California, Washington, and OregonGoogle Scholar
  44. US Forest Service (1982) Comprehensive plan for the Pacific Crest trail. US Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland OR. http://www.pcta.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/PCNSTComprehensivePlan.pdf
  45. US Forest Service (2014) Pacific Crest trail. http://www.fs.fed.us/pct/. Accessed 8 December 2008, 17 January 2014
  46. Warren B (2006) Statement of Bob Warren, Chairman of National Association for Gateway Communities, Tourism Development Manager, City of Redding, California to the Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests regarding H.R. 585. The Gateway Communities Cooperation Act. Hearing 10 May 2006. http://www.energy.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/hearings-and-business-meetings?Id=60bdd296–5262-4b5d-bc28-7be095d3c94e&Statement_id=5052a1ca-4ad6-45d9-a83f.-06a8ccd56d52. Accessed 10 May 2010
  47. Wellman D, Dustin D, Henderson K, Moore R (2008) Service learning: building community through public parks and recreation. Venture Publications, State CollegeGoogle Scholar
  48. Yin RK (1994) Case study research design and methods. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yale School of Forestry & Environmental StudiesNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations