Advertisement

The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: A Rapid Appraisal and Recommendations

  • Darcy PethEmail author
  • Jennifer Hoyle
  • Emily Alcott
  • Jessica Siegal
  • Shristi Kamal
  • Rae Wynn-Grant
  • Susan G. Clark
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)

Abstract

This chapter describes a rapid appraisal in the northern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE)—a high-profile, large-scale ecosystem with unique biological and geological systems—conducted in March 2009 by a class at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. The group’s methods and theoretical foundations are described. The assessment showed that conservation management and policy, as evidenced in the programs surveyed (e.g., grizzly bear and wolf management, snowmobile use, tourism, and others) and the people interviewed, are fraught with conflicting perspectives, contested problem definitions, symbol inflation, and politics. Particular problems in the GYE’s social process and decision process are examined. The team’s recommendations encourage common interest outcomes: learning from practice-based, prototyping experiences, creating new arenas for community-based participation, and adopting an adaptive governance framework in problem solving. Such a framework emphasizes ongoing adjustment of decision-making processes to actual, on-the-ground situations, and it provides a unique platform for creating a process that is more inclusive and capable of harnessing local knowledge and experience, bridges the divide between science and the practical measures needed for effective conservation, and fosters respect and pursuit of human dignity as overarching goals.

Keywords

Large-scale conservation Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Fragmentation Decision making Arenas Prototyping Active learning 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We want to thank Lisa Hummon and Christa Anderson for their contributions to this chapter, as well as the individuals who generously spoke with us during our time in Wyoming and Montana, in particular Doug Smith, Chuck Schwartz, Gary Tabor, Louisa Willcox, Steve Primm, Seth Wilson, Jason Wilmot, Kerry Gunther, Lydia Dixon, and others. We would have been unable to complete this trip without the assistance of Laurie Bozzuto at Yale. Denise Casey reviewed our manuscript as did two anonymous reviewers.

References

  1. Anderson A (2007) Connecting with ranchers in the Green River Valley. NRCC News 20(1):4Google Scholar
  2. Brunner RD, Clark TW (1997) A practice-based approach to ecosystem management. Conserv Biol 11(1):48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brunner RD, Colburn CH, Cromley CM, Klein RA, Olson EA (2002) Finding common ground: governance and natural resources in the American West. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  4. Brunner RD, Steelman TA, Coe-Juell L, Cromley CM, Edwards CM, Tucker DW (2005) Adaptive governance: Integrating science, policy, and decision making. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Cherney DN (2011) Environmental saviors? The effectiveness of nonprofit organizations in Greater Yellowstone. Dissertation, University of Colorado, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  6. Cherney DN, Clark S (2009) The American West’s longest large mammal migration: clarifying and securing the common interest. Policy Sci 42(2):95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cherney DN, Bond AC, Clark S (2009) Understanding patterns of human interaction and decision making: an initial map of Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador. J Sustain For 28(6 & 7):694–711Google Scholar
  8. Clark S (2002) The policy process: a practical guide for natural resource professionals. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark S (2008) Ensuring Greater Yellowstone’s future: choices for leaders and citizens. Yale University Press, New HavenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark S (2009) An informational approach to sustainability: “intelligence” in conservation and natural resource management policy. J Sustain For 28(6/7):597–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark SG, Wallace RL (2012) Interdisciplinary environmental leadership: Learning and teaching integrated problem solving. In: Gallagher DR (ed) Environmental leadership: a reference handbook. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp  420–429Google Scholar
  12. Clark SG, Willard AR, Cromley CM (eds) (2000) Foundations of natural resources policy and management. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  13. Clark TW (1993) Creating and using knowledge for species and ecosystem conservation: science, organizations, and policy. Perspect Biol Med 36:497–525Google Scholar
  14. Clark TW, Ashton M (2004) Interdisciplinary rapid field appraisals: the Ecuadorian Condor Bioreserve experience. J Sustain For 18(2/3):1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clark TW, Gillesberg AM (2001) Lessons from wolf restoration in Greater Yellowstone. In: Sharpe VA, Norton B, Donnelley S (eds) Wolves and human communities: biology, politics, and ethics. Island Press, Washington, pp 135–149Google Scholar
  16. Clark TW, Minta S (1994) Greater Yellowstone’s future: Prospects for ecosystem science, management, and policy. Homestead Press, MooseGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark TW, Wallace RL (2002) The dynamics of value interactions in endangered species conservation. Endang Species Update 19(4):95–100Google Scholar
  18. Cromley CM (2000) The killing of grizzly bear 209: Identifying norms for grizzly bear management. In: Clark SG, Willard AR, Cromley CM (eds) Foundations of natural resources policy and management. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 173–220Google Scholar
  19. Cromley CM (2002) Bison management in Greater Yellowstone. In: Brunner RD et al (eds) Finding common ground: governance and natural resources in the American West. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 126–158Google Scholar
  20. Del Campo A, Clark S (2009) Rapid appraisal: an innovation in search of sustainability. J Sustain For 26(6–7):614–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deliso E (2007) Exploring elk management in northwestern Wyoming. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 20(1):2Google Scholar
  22. Ferguson G (2003) Hawk’s rest: a season in the remote heart of Yellowstone. National Geographic Adventure Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  23. Glick D and Clark TW (1998) Overcoming boundaries: the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. In: Knight RL, Landres RB (eds) Stewardship across boundaries. Island Press, Washington, pp 237–256Google Scholar
  24. Grandstaff SW et al (1985) Summary report. In: Proceedings of the 1985 International conference on rapid rural appraisal: rural systems research and farming systems research projects. Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, pp 5–30Google Scholar
  25. Hobbs R (2009) Looking for the silver lining: making the most of failure. Restor Ecol 17(1):1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kahn B (2000) Uses and valuation of the National Elk Refuge. In: Clark TW, Casey D, Halverson A (eds) Developing sustainable management policy for the National Elk Refuge, Wyoming. Yale FES Bulletin No. 104, New Haven, pp 139–170Google Scholar
  27. Keiter RB (2003) Keeping faith with nature. Yale University Press, New HavenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keiter RB (2013) To conserve unimpaired: the evolution of the national park idea. Island Press, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Knight RL and Clark TW (1998) Boundaries between public and private lands: defining obstacles, finding solutions. In: Knight RL, Landres RB (eds) Stewardship across boundaries. Island Press, Washington, pp 175–191Google Scholar
  30. Lasswell HD (1971) A pre-view of policy sciences. American Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Mattson DJ, Clark S (2009) People, politics, and cougar management. In: Hornocker M, Negri S (eds), Cougar: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 206–220Google Scholar
  32. Mattson DJ, Byrd KL, Rutherford MB, Brown SR, Clark TW (2006) Finding common ground in large carnivore conservation: mapping contending perspectives. Environ Sci Pol 9:392–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McLaughlin G, Primm SA, Rutherford MB (2005) Participatory projects for coexistence: rebuilding civil society. In: Clark TW, Rutherford MB, Casey D (eds) Coexisting with large carnivores: lessons from Greater Yellowstone. Island Press, Washington, pp 177–210Google Scholar
  34. Murie M and Murie O (1985) Wapiti wilderness. Colorado Associated University Presses, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  35. National Park Service (2013) The World Heritage Convention, the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Program and Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone National Park, Mammoth Hot Springs, WYGoogle Scholar
  36. Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative and the Charture Institute (2007) The Greater Yellowstone conservation directory. Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative and the Charture Institute, Jackson, WYGoogle Scholar
  37. Oppenheimer JD, Richie L (2014) Collaborative grizzly bear management in Banff National Park: learning from a prototype. In: Clark SG, Rutherford MB (eds) Large carnivore conservation: integrating science and policy in the North American West. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  38. Pielke R Jr (2007) Honest broker: making sense of science in policy and politics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Preston CR (2005) Saving the charmed goose: reconciling human demands with inherent limitations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Yellowstone Sci 13(4):5–13Google Scholar
  40. Primm S (1996) A pragmatic approach to grizzly bear conservation. Conserv Biol 10(4):1026–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Primm S (2000) Real bears, symbol bears, and problem solving. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 13:6–8Google Scholar
  42. Primm SA and Clark TW (1996) Making sense of the policy process for carnivore conservation. Conserv Biol 10(4):1036–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Primm SA and Wilson S (2004) Re-connecting grizzly bear populations: prospects for participatory projects. Ursus 15:104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Robbins P (2006) The politics of barstool biology: environmental knowledge and power in greater Northern Yellowstone. Geoforum 37:185–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rutherford MB, Gibeau ML, Clark SG, Chamberlain EC (2009) Interdisciplinary problem solving workshops for grizzly bear conservation in Banff National Park, Canada. Pol Sci 42:163–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schullery P (1997a) Imagining Yellowstone. In: Searching for Yellowstone: ecology and wonder in the last wilderness. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, pp 248–262, 263–265Google Scholar
  47. Schullery P (1997b) Searching for Yellowstone: ecology and wonder in the last wilderness. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  48. Smith BL (2012) Where elk roam: conservation and biopolitics of our national elk herd. Lyons Press, GuilfordGoogle Scholar
  49. Steelman TA and DuMond ME (2009) Serving the common interest in U.S. Forest Policy: a case study of the Healthy Forests Restoration Act. Environ Manage 43:396–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Taylor D and Clark TW (2005) Managing context: people, animals, and institutions. In: Clark TW, Rutherford MB, Casey D (eds) Coexisting with large carnivores: lessons from Greater Yellowstone. Island Press, Washington, pp 28–68Google Scholar
  51. Turner J (2008) Travels in the Greater Yellowstone. St. Martin’s Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Vogel JM (2006) Persistent policy problems. Dissertation, University of Colorado, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  53. Watters R (2007) Perceptions of large carnivores on the Wind River Reservation. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 20(1):3Google Scholar
  54. Watters R, Anderson AC, Clark S (2014) Wolves in Wyoming: the quest for common ground. In: Clark SG, Rutherford MB (eds) Large carnivore conservation: integrating science and policy in the North American West. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilkinson KM, Clark SG, Burch WR (2007) Other voices, other ways, better practices: bridging local and professional environmental knowledge. Yale University School of Forestry & Environmental Studies Report No. 14, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  56. Wilmot J (2004a) Meeting today’s conservation challenges. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 17(1):1Google Scholar
  57. Wilmot J (2004b) New NRCC projects. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 17(1):2–3Google Scholar
  58. Wilmot J (2005) Moving conservation forward. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 18:1–2Google Scholar
  59. Wilmot J (2007a) Looking back to inform the future. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 20(2):2Google Scholar
  60. Wilmot J (2007b) Rare Carnivore research: wolverine ecology in the Northern Rockies. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 20(2):6–7Google Scholar
  61. Wilmot J (2008) Wolverine increasingly in public eye. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 21(1):4Google Scholar
  62. Wilmot J, Dixon L (2004a) Making science relevant to management. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 17(1):5Google Scholar
  63. Wilmot J, Dixon L (2004b) The future of wildlife in Jackson Hole: a civic dialogue reinvigorates community exchanges and involvement. NRCC [Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative] News 17(1):6Google Scholar
  64. Wilson S (2007) Community supported conservation of grizzly bears on private agricultural land: final close-out report for conservation innovation grant. US Dep Agri, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Portland, ORGoogle Scholar
  65. Wilson SM, Clark S (2007) Resolving human-grizzly bear conflicts: an integrated approach in the common interest. In: Hanna S, Slocombe DS (eds) Fostering integration: concepts and practice in resource and environmental management. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 137–163Google Scholar
  66. Wilson SM, Primm S (2005) Making connections for grizzly bears. NRCC News 18(1):1–8Google Scholar
  67. Wilson SM, Graham JA, Mattson DJ, Madel MJ (2006) Landscape conditions predisposing grizzly bears to conflict on private agricultural lands in the western U.S.A. Biol Conserv 130:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wilson SM, Neudecker GA, Jonkel JJ (2014) Human-grizzly bear coexistence in the Blackfoot River watershed, Montana: getting ahead of the conflict curve. In: Clark SG, Rutherford MB (eds) Large carnivore conservation: integrating science and policy in the North American West. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  69. Yellowstone National Park (2008) Vital Signs: superintendent’s natural resource vital signs 2008. www.nps.gov/yell/parkmgmt/vitalsigns.htm. Accessed 1 Jan 2014
  70. Yellowstone National Park (2011) Vital Signs: natural resources vital signs 2011. www.nps.gov/yell/parkmgmt/vitalsigns.htm. Accessed 1 Jan 2014
  71. Yellowstone National Park (2013) Vital Signs: natural and cultural resources vital signs 2013. www.nps.gov/yell/parkmgmt/vitalsigns.htm. Accessed 1 Jan 2014
  72. Yochim MJ (2013) Protecting Yellowstone: science and the politics of park management. University of New Mexico Press, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darcy Peth
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jennifer Hoyle
    • 2
  • Emily Alcott
    • 3
  • Jessica Siegal
    • 4
  • Shristi Kamal
    • 5
  • Rae Wynn-Grant
    • 6
  • Susan G. Clark
    • 6
  1. 1.Ross StrategicSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Yale School of Forestry and Environmental StudiesNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Inter-Fluve, Inc.Hood RiverUSA
  4. 4.GlynwoodCold SpringUSA
  5. 5.Institute of Environmental SciencesJagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland
  6. 6.Department of Ecology, Evolution & Environmental BiologyColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations