Approaches to Large-Scale Conservation: A Survey

  • Aaron M. HohlEmail author
  • Catherine H. Picard
  • Susan G. Clark
  • Arthur Middleton
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


Seven approaches to large-scale conservation can be distinguished by their different doctrines (basic assumptions or philosophy), formulas (standard operating principles and on-the-ground actions), and the symbols used to promote and legitimize them. (1) Single- and multiple-use resource management, which manages nature for sustained use or profit, is a historical cornerstone of conservation. This chapter examines its historical origins, philosophical bases, and the multiple criticisms that have led to development of a range of alternatives. These include (2) parks and protected areas approach, which focuses on geographically well-defined areas; (3) ecosystem management, which draws on modern ecology to conserve ecosystems while providing multiple resource values; (4) ecoregional conservation, which identifies the ecological attributes of a landscape and then selects a set of target elements to conserve; (5) integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs), which attempt to ensure the conservation of biological diversity while attending to the needs of local people; (6) transboundary conservation, which assumes that ecosystems and their attendant functions transcend political and administrative boundaries and thus require cross-boundary cooperation and coordination; and (7) adaptive governance, which holds that large-scale conservation should strive to secure people’s common interests, including a healthy present and sustainable future for both people and the environment. Adaptive governance, which this chapter promotes, offers a holistic, integrative, and fully contextual approach.


Large-scale conservation Single- and multiple-use management Parks and protected areas Ecosystem management Integrated conservation and development Ecoregional planning Transboundary management Adaptive management 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aaron M. Hohl
    • 1
    Email author
  • Catherine H. Picard
    • 2
  • Susan G. Clark
    • 3
  • Arthur Middleton
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Wildland ResourcesHumboldt State UniversityArcataUSA
  2. 2.Tetra Tech/ARDBurlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Yale School of Forestry and Environmental StudiesNew HavenUSA

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