Comparison of Manual and Computerized Measurements of Sagittal Vertebral Inclination in MR Images

  • Tomaž VrtovecEmail author
  • Franjo Pernuš
  • Boštjan Likar
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics book series (LNCVB, volume 17)


In this study, sagittal vertebral inclination (SVI) was systematically measured by three observers for \(28\) vertebrae (T4-L5) from one normal and one scoliotic magnetic resonance (MR) spine image using six manual and two computerized measurements. Manual measurements were performed by superior and inferior tangents, anterior and posterior tangents, and mid-endplate and mid-wall lines. Computerized measurements were performed by automatically evaluating the symmetry of vertebral anatomy in sagittal cross-sections and volumetric images. The mid-wall lines were the manual measurements with the lowest intra- and inter-observer variability (\(1.4^\circ \!\) and \(1.9^\circ \!\) standard deviation, SD). The strongest inter-method agreement was found between the mid-wall lines and posterior tangents (\(2.0^\circ \!\) SD). Computerized measurements did not yield intra- and inter-observer variability (\(2.8^\circ \!\) and \(3.8^\circ \!\) SD) as low as the mid-wall lines, but were still comparable to the intra- and inter-observer variability of the superior (\(2.6^\circ \!\) and \(3.7^\circ \!\) SD) and inferior (\(3.2^\circ \!\) and \(4.5^\circ \!\) SD) tangents.



This work has been supported by the Slovenian Research Agency under grants P2-0232, J7-2264, L2-7381, and L2-2023. The authors thank R. Vengust (University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia) and D. Štern (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia) for performing manual measurements.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomaž Vrtovec
    • 1
    Email author
  • Franjo Pernuš
    • 1
  • Boštjan Likar
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

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