Proposal of a Method to Measure Difficulty Level of Programming Code with Eye-Tracking

  • Tomoko Kashima
  • Shimpei Matsumoto
  • Shuichi Yamagishi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8511)


In recent years, guaranteeing the educational quality is required in university education of Japan. With this situation in mind, we built study support environment with the information technology. As a result, we utilized the result for programming education and obtained the effect. There are various technical elements in the programming skill. However, many evaluations have adopted a comprehensive evaluation method. Therefore, a student’s attainment to each technical element is indefinite. Some students become difficult to perform learning activities. So, in this research, programming notes the point which is the implicit thinking skill which is strongly related in study. Accumulation experience analyzes strongly related eye movement, and we aim at the standard construction for skill.


programming difficulty level educational support eye-tracking 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gog, T., Scheiter, K.: Eye Tracking as a Tool to Study and Enhance Multimedia Learning. Learning and Instruction 20(2), 95–99 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lau, W., Yuen, A.: Modelling Programming Performance: Beyond the Influence of Learner Characteristics. Computers & Education 57(1), 1202–1213 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kiss, G.: Teaching Programming in the Higher Education not for Engineering Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 103(26), 922–927 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Othman, M., Othman, M., Hussain, F.: Designing Prototype Model of an Online Collaborative Learning System for Introductory Computer Programming Course. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 90(10), 293–302 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Emrouznejad, A., Parkerb, B., Tavares, G.: Evaluation of Research in Efficiency and Productivity: A Survey and Analysis of the First 30 Years of Scholarly Literature in DEA. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 42(3), 151–157 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fushida, K., Tamada, H., Iguki, H., Fujiwara, K., Yoshida, N.: Coding Pattern Analysis for Novice Programmer in Programming Exercise, Technical Report of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Vol.111(481), SS2011-68, 67-72 (2012) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hofuku, Y., Cho, S., Nishida, T., Kanemune, S.: A Class Analysis by “De-Gapper”: The Tool to Detect Gaps between Programs. Information Processing Society of Japan, SIG Notes 2013-CE-121(8), 1–6 (2013) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ogino, A., Tamada, H., Ueda, H.: Phynocation: A Prototyping of a Teaching Assistant Robot for C Language Class. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) Universal Access in HCI, Part IV, HCII 2011. LNCS, vol. 6768, pp. 597–604. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tamada, H., Ogino, A., Ueda, H.: A Framework for Programming Process Measurement and Compiling Error Interpretation for Novice Programmers. In: Proc. of 2011 Joint Conference of the 21st International Workshop on and 6th International Conference on Software Process and Product Management, pp. 233–238 (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ishikawa, H., Maruyama, K., Terada, M.: Programming Study Support Using the Review Function of SNS. Proc. of Forum on Information Technology 11(3), 617–622 (2012) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ito, K., Sato, T., Tsubakimoto, M.: Analyzing Case Examples of a Self-Study Environment for Programing Education. Research Report of Japanese Society for Information and Systems in Education 27(4), 9–13 (2012) (in Japanese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoko Kashima
    • 1
  • Shimpei Matsumoto
    • 2
  • Shuichi Yamagishi
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringKinki UniversityHigashi-Hiroshima CityJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied Information ScienceHiroshima Institute of TechnologySaeki-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations