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Potable Water pp 181-211 | Cite as

Advances in Desalination Technologies: Solar Desalination

  • Magdy M. Abou RayanEmail author
  • Berge Djebedjian
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 30)

Abstract

Availability of freshwater is the prime mover of the human life activities. The advances in desalination technologies clearly show that desalinated water can be used as a substitute for freshwater to be used as potable water. A breakthrough in reverse osmosis costs has been reached, particularly in decreasing energy consumption. The introduction of nanotechnology in the membrane manufacture has resulted in reducing the volume of rejected brine which in turn alleviates the brine disposal issue. Several recent studies show that desalinated water for development of isolated areas is economically competitive to transportation of freshwater by pipeline. The introduction of solar energy to power desalination process has given a new dimension to the expansion of desalination technology. Several studies show the importance of solar desalination in countries suffering from freshwater shortage, particularly in isolated areas. This chapter presents an overview of desalination technologies with emphasis on solar energy-driven units. Some case studies are highlighted. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future avenues in solar desalination.

Keywords

Solar desalination Potable water Water supply for remote areas Economics of desalination 

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AD

Aggregate Demand

ADIRA

Autonomous Desalination System Concepts for Seawater and Brackish Water in Rural Areas with Renewable Energies—Potentials, Technologies, Field Experience, Socio-Technical and Socio-Economic Impacts

ADS

Autonomous Desalination Systems

ANOVA

Analysis of Variance

BWRO

Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis

CCGT

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine

CHF

Swiss Franc

CLP

Chilean Peso

ED

Electrodialysis

EDR

Electrodialysis Reversal

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

FIC

Innovation Fund for Competitiveness

GWI

Global Water Intelligence

HCPVT

High Concentration Photovoltaic Thermal System

HDH

Humidification Dehumidification

IDA

International Desalination Association

ITC

Instituto Tecnológico de Canarias

KACST

King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology

KSA

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

kW/h

kilowatt per hour

kWp

kilowatt peak

LCZ

Lower Convective Zone

m3

Cubic meter

MD

Membrane Distillation

ME

Multiple-Effect Distillation

MEB

Multiple-Effect Boiling

MED

Multiple-Effect Distillation

MEH

Multiple-Effect Humidification

MENA

Middle East and North Africa

mg/l

Milligrams per liter

MGZ

Main Gradient Zone

MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MNT

Institute for Micro- and Nanotechnology

MSF

Multi-Stage Flash Distillation

MVC

Mechanical Vapor Compression

NA

Nanofiltration

NCZ

Nonconvective Zone

PTSS

Portable Thermoelectric Solar Still

PV

Photovoltaic

R&D

Research and Development

RO

Reverse Osmosis

RSM

Response Surface Methodology

SGSP

Salinity-Gradient Solar Pond

SMC

Southern Mediterranean Countries

SWCC

Saudi Arabia’s Saline Water Conversion Corporation

SWRO

Seawater Reverse Osmosis

TDS

Total Dissolved Solids

UAE

United Arab of Emirates

UCZ

Upper Convective Zone

UHCPV

Ultrahigh Concentrator Photovoltaic

UNEP

United Nations Environment Program

UPC

Unit Product Cost

VC

Vapor Compression

WDS

Water Distribution System

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Disclaimer

This chapter provides an overview of desalination technologies and available information on solar desalination. The authors make no representations or warranties of any kind and assume no liabilities of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents. References are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any manufacturers, websites, or other sources cited in this chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Research and Industrial Projects CenterMansoura UniversityEl-MansouraEgypt

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