Advertisement

Drinking Water Distribution: Emerging Issues in Minor Water Systems

  • Juneseok LeeEmail author
  • Owais Farooqi
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 30)

Abstract

This chapter addresses general characteristics of water distribution systems with focus on minor systems. Major systems are water mains that bring drinking water from water treatment plant to the building premises. Minor systems include service lines that connect major systems to minor system and in-building plumbing system. This chapter provides a detailed review of minor systems and mechanisms of minor systems’ failures and describes experimental studies designed to replicate the range of pressures encountered in actual minor water distribution systems and how a pressure transient triggered within major and minor systems can impact service lines with possible contamination intrusion in minor systems. It is demonstrated that hydraulic transients triggered from water mains result in low-pressure events in service lines which can allow possible intrusion of microbial and chemical contaminants in service lines. It is concluded that the structural integrity of service lines and the hydraulic integrity of water distribution systems should be maintained in order to minimize public health risks from contaminant intrusion in minor systems and tap water.

Keywords

Contaminant intrusion Copper pitting Water distribution systems Hydraulic transients Plumbing systems 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This chapter is based upon authors’ journal publications focusing on premise plumbing issues, which were completed under the guidance of Late Dr G.V.Loganathan. The Sect. 4 Literature Review of Copper Pipe Pitting and Sect. 8 Contamination Intrusion at Minor Systems have been included with written permission from the ASCE and the IWA, respectively. The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. Paolo Scardina and Dr. Marc Edwards for their expert advice.

References

  1. 1.
    The Report of President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (1997) Critical foundations: protecting America’s infrastructures. Available at https://www.fas.org/sgp/library/pccip.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2014
  2. 2.
    Edwards MA (2006) Chapter 8: alternatives for premise plumbing. In drinking water distribution system: assessing and reducing risks. National Research Council, The National Academic Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Loganathan GV, Lee J (2005) Decision tools for optimal replacement of plumbing system. J Civil Environ Eng 22(4):189–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kirmeyer G, Friedman M, Martel K, Howie D, LeChevallier M, Abbaszadegan M, Karim M, Funk J, Harbour J (2001) Pathogen intrusion into the distribution system. American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Denver, COGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marshutz S (2001) Hooked on copper: a comparison shows the gap is narrowing with PEX gaining popularity as a preferred material in new construction and repiping work. Reeves Journal. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-82881389.html. Accessed 25 Dec 2013
  6. 6.
    Ladd J (2005) An evaluation and pressure driven modeling of potable water plumbing system. MS Thesis, Va TechGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Worthington W (2006) President, pipeline technology & pipetech international (Personal communication)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    IPC (International Plumbing Code) (2000) International code council. Falls Church, VaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stein B, Reynolds JS (1992) Mechanical and electrical equipment for buildings. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Novak JA (2005) Cavitation and bubble formation in water distribution system. MS Thesis, Va TechGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee J, Kleczyk E, Bosch D, Tanellari E, Dwyer S, Dietrich A (2009) Case study: preference trade-offs toward home plumbing attributes and materials. J Water Resour Plann Manag 135(4):237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    AWWA Manual M27 (1987) External corrosion: introduction to chemistry and controlGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Farooqi OE (2006) An assessment and modeling of copper plumbing pipe failures due to pinhole leaks. MS Thesis, Va TechGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Edwards M, Rushing JC, Kvech S, Reiber S (2004) Assessing copper pinhole leaks in residential plumbing. Water Sci Technol 49(2):83–90Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Basalo C (1992) Water and gas mains corrosion, degradation, and protection. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chang R (1998) Chemistry. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Magnon PL (1999) The principles of materials selection for engineering design. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    West JM (1986) Basic corrosion and oxidation. Ellis Harwood, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Trethewey KR, Chamberlain J (1995) Corrosion for science and engineering. Longman, Harlow, UKGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Edwards MA, Ferguson JF, Reiber SH (1994) The pitting corrosion of copper. J Am Water Works Assoc 86(7):74–90Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ferguson JF, von Franque O, Schock MR (1996) Corrosion of copper in potable water systems. In Internal corrosion of water distribution systems. Denver, CO., American Water Works Association Research FoundationGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schock MR (1999) Chapter 17: water quality and treatment. McGraw-Hill, In Internal corrosion and deposition controlGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marshall B, Edwards M (2005) Copper pinhole leak development in the presence of Al(OH)3 and free chlorine. Proceedings of the AWWA Annual Conference, San Francisco, JuneGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rushing JC (2002) Effects of chlorine and aluminum on copper pitting, temperature gradients on copper corrosion, and silica on iron release. MS thesis, Va TechGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    El Warraky A, Shayeb HA, Sherif EM (2004) Pitting corrosion of copper in chloride solutions. Anticorros Methods & Mater 51(1):52–61Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nguyen CK (2005) Interactions between copper and chlorine disinfectants: chlorine decay, chloramine decay and copper pitting. MS Thesis, Va TechGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sobue K, Sugahara A, Nakata T, Imai H, Magaino S (2003) Effect of free carbon dioxide on corrosion behavior of copper in simulated water. Surf Coat Technol 169–170:662–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jacobs S, Reiber S, Edwards M (1998) Sulfide-induced copper corrosion. J Am Water Works Assoc 90(7):62–73Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jacobs S, Edwards M (2000) Sulfide scale catalysis of copper corrosion. Water Res 34(10):2798–2808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Myers J, Cohen A (2005) Copper-tube corrosion in domestic water systems. In Boiler systems engineering. American Boiler Manufacturer’s AssociationGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Murray-Ramos NA (2006) Examining aspects of copper and brass corrosion in drinking water. MS Thesis, Va TechGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rossum JR (1985) Pitting in copper water tubing. J Am Water Works Assoc 77(10):70–73Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cohen A, Lyman S (1972) Service experience with copper plumbing tube. Mater Prot Perform 11(2):48–53Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Duthil JP, Mankowski G, Giusti A (1996) The synergetic effect of chloride and sulfate on pitting corrosion of copper. Corros Sci 38(10):1839–1849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Maryland Task Force Study (2004) Pinhole leaks in copper plumbing. Maryland Department of Housing & Community Development, DecemberGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Canadian Copper & Brass Development Association (2005) Hot water recirculation systems. http://www.coppercanada.ca/publications/pubis97-02/pubis9702.html. Accessed 25 Dec 2013
  37. 37.
    Scardina RP (2004) Effects of gas supersaturation and bubble formation on water treatment plant performance. Ph.D, Dissertation, Va TechGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zielke W (1990) Chapter 1. Gas release in transient pipe flow. In Thorley ARD (ed) Pressure surges: Proceedings of the 6th international conference, Cambridge, UK October 1989. BHRA Fluid Engineering Center, Cranfield, UKGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wiggert D, Sundquist M (1979) The effect of gaseous cavitation on fluid transients. J Fluids Eng 101:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Van Houten JJ (2003) Control of plumbing noise in buildings. Plumb Syst & Des March/April:30–37Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Plumbing & Drainage Institute (1992) Water hammer arrestors: Standard PDI – WH 201Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Farooqi O, Lee J (2005) Plumber survey: Phase IGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Farooqi OE, Loganathan GV, Edwards MA, Bosch D, Lee J, Scardina P (2009) Copper pinhole failures: plumbing susceptibility and management. J Water Resour Plann Manag 135(4):227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Slovic P, Weber EU (2002) Perception of risk posed by extreme events. Conference on Risk Management Strategies in an Uncertain World. Palisades, New York, AprilGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Champ PA, Boyle KJ, Brown TC (2003) A primer on nonmarket valuation. Springer, NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kleczyk E, Bosch D (2006) Causal factors and costs of home plumbing corrosion: Sample selection bias. AAEA Annual Meeting, Long Beach, CA, JulyGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Scardina P, Edwards M, Bosch D, Loganathan GV, Dwyer S (2007) Non-uniform corrosion in copper piping—assessment. Final report submitted to American Water Works Association Research Foundation. Va Tech, Blacksburg, VAGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Research Foundation AWWA (2007) Installation, condition assessment, and reliability of service lines. Denver, CO., AWWAGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Copper Development Association (2005) Copper tube handbook. http://www.copper.org/publications/pub_list/pdf/copper_tube_handbook.pdf. Accessed 25 Dec 2013
  50. 50.
    AWWA (American Water Works Association) (2004) Sizing Water Service Lines and Meters (M22). Denver, CO., AWWAGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    PPFA (2002) Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) hot and cold water-distribution systemsGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    LeChevallier M, Gullick R, Karim M, Friedman M, Funk J (2003) The potential for health risks from intrusion of contaminants into the distribution system from pressure transients. J Water Health 1(1):3–14Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Friedman M et al. (2004) Verification and control of pressure transients and intrusion in distribution systems. Report 91001F. AWWA, Denver, COGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Payment P, Richardson L, Siemiatycki J, Dewar R, Edwards M, Franco E (1991) Randomized trial to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal disease due to consumption of drinking water meeting microbiological standards. Am J Public Health 81(6):703–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Payment P, Siemiatycki J, Richardson L, Renaud G, Franco E, Prevost M (1997) A prospective epidemiological study of gastrointestinal health effects due to the consumption of drinking water. Int J Environ Res Publ Health 7:5–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Karim M, Abbaszadegan M, LeChevallier M (2003) Potential for pathogen intrusion during pressure transients. J Am Water Works Assoc 95(5):134–146Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gullick R, LeChevallier M, Svindland R, Friedman M (2004) Occurrence of transient low and negative pressures in distribution systems. J Am Water Works Assoc 96(11):52–66Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    AWWA Water Loss Control Committee Report (2003) Applying wordwide best management practices in water loss control. Available at http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/40941%28247%2933. Accessed 1 March 2014
  59. 59.
    Lee J, Lohani V, Dietrich A, Loganathan GV (2012) Hydraulic transients in plumbing systems, IWA water supply. Water Sci Technol: Water Supply 12(5):619–629Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jung BS, Karney BW, Boulous PF, Wood DJ (2007) The need for comprehensive transient analysis of distribution systems. J Am Water Works Assoc 99(1):112–123Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringSan José State UniversitySan JoséUSA
  2. 2.Black & VeatchGaithersburgUSA

Personalised recommendations