Drinking Water Distribution: Emerging Issues in Minor Water Systems

  • Juneseok LeeEmail author
  • Owais Farooqi
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 30)


This chapter addresses general characteristics of water distribution systems with focus on minor systems. Major systems are water mains that bring drinking water from water treatment plant to the building premises. Minor systems include service lines that connect major systems to minor system and in-building plumbing system. This chapter provides a detailed review of minor systems and mechanisms of minor systems’ failures and describes experimental studies designed to replicate the range of pressures encountered in actual minor water distribution systems and how a pressure transient triggered within major and minor systems can impact service lines with possible contamination intrusion in minor systems. It is demonstrated that hydraulic transients triggered from water mains result in low-pressure events in service lines which can allow possible intrusion of microbial and chemical contaminants in service lines. It is concluded that the structural integrity of service lines and the hydraulic integrity of water distribution systems should be maintained in order to minimize public health risks from contaminant intrusion in minor systems and tap water.


Contaminant intrusion Copper pitting Water distribution systems Hydraulic transients Plumbing systems 



This chapter is based upon authors’ journal publications focusing on premise plumbing issues, which were completed under the guidance of Late Dr G.V.Loganathan. The Sect. 4 Literature Review of Copper Pipe Pitting and Sect. 8 Contamination Intrusion at Minor Systems have been included with written permission from the ASCE and the IWA, respectively. The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. Paolo Scardina and Dr. Marc Edwards for their expert advice.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringSan José State UniversitySan JoséUSA
  2. 2.Black & VeatchGaithersburgUSA

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