Advertisement

Hydrothermal Fluids of Magmatic Origin

  • Rajesh SharmaEmail author
  • Pankaj K. Srivastava
Chapter
  • 1.6k Downloads
Part of the Society of Earth Scientists Series book series (SESS)

Abstract

Hydrothermal fluids are natural heated water solutions wherein variety of elements, compounds and gases may be dissolved. They are generated by diverse crustal and mantle geological processes including basinal fluid interaction, magmatic differentiation and mantle degassing. Mixing of the fluids of two different origins is often possible, and their solidified product may be economic. As the magmatic hydrothermal fluid is formed during the course of magmatic evolution from low volatiles and CO2-CH4 rich at primary basaltic magmatic phase to the saline water rich during granite/pegmatite formation, large number of constituents including the common S, Cl, F, Na, K, N2, metals and even REE may be found in it. The enrichment of halogen in the magmatic hydrothermal fluids promotes the partitioning of economically useful elements like Cu, Pb, Zn, W, Mn, Li, Rb, Sr and Ba from melt to the fluid phase. Salinity of this hydrothermal fluid, which varies from near 0 to >50 wt.% eq. NaCl, is a function of pressure. A wide range of immiscibility in the magmatic fluids results compositional modification of the gradually developing phases from nearly anhydrous melt to last residual low temperature water solution. Wet magma with higher mol% of water flows easily and exsolves water at low pressure regime. Influx of water in the heated rock suit can lower the liquidus temperature triggering melting at a lower temperature than the anhydrous melting. Fluid inclusions have been widely used to understand behaviour of ore forming fluids and the magmatic immiscibility such as silicate melt, H2O-CO2, hydrosaline melt, dense CH4 and sulphide-metal melt. Ore deposition is generally linked with the late stage of magmatic hydrothermal fluid, and its repeated pulses may lead to the formation of large ore bodies. In addition to saline aqueous fluid, the volatiles like H2S, CO2, SO2, SO4, HCl, B and F, are found as significant ore-depositing agents in magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. A hydrothermal fluid may dissolve economically useful elements or simply act as carrier for them. PVTX conditions obtained from fluid inclusions are vital for defining hydrothermal system and resulting ore mineralization, though such interpretation is largely based on the knowledge of their phase equilibria. The fluid process related to the epithermal Au deposits, porphyry type deposits, Malanjkhand Cu deposit and Balda-Tosham tungsten province, India, have also been discussed briefly.

Keywords

Fluid Inclusion Hydrothermal Fluid Aqueous Fluid Granitic Magma Magmatic Fluid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

RS thanks Director, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology for the encouragement and permission. Authors are thankful to Prof. Santosh Kumar for giving this opportunity to contribute. PKS thanks his students for the help in preparation of some figures. Reviewers: Prof. M. Obeid, Fayoum University, Egypt and Dr. R. Krishnamurthy IIT, Roorkee, India are thanked for their comments. Authors thank John Wiley and Narosa publications for permission to reproduce some figures. This lecture note article has been greatly benefited by many published work including those of Burnham, Candela, Heinrich, Roedder, Bodnar, Holloway, Shinohara, Thomson and many others.

References

  1. Anderko K, Pitzer KS (1993) Equation-of-state representation of phase equilibria and volumetric properties of the system NaCl-H2O above 573 K. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1657–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson WW, Hunter W (2002) Comb quartz layers in the porphyry copper deposit at Yerington, Nevada. Geol Soc Am Abstracts with Programs 34(5):15Google Scholar
  3. Banerji S, Pandit MK (1995) Lithium and tungsten mineralization in Sewariya pluton, South Delhi fold belt, Rajasthan : evidences for preferential host rock affinity. Curr Sci 69:252–256Google Scholar
  4. Beane RE (1983) The magmatic-meteoric transition. Geothermal resources council, Special Report No. 13, pp 245–253Google Scholar
  5. Beane RE, Bodnar RJ (1995) Hydrothermal fluids and hydrothermal alteration in porphyry copper deposits. In: Pierce FW, Bohm JG (eds) Porphyry copper deposits of the American Cordillera, Arizona Geol. Soc. Digest, vol 20, pp 83–93Google Scholar
  6. Bhattacharjee J, Fareeduddin, Jain SS (1993) Tectonic setting, petrochemistry and tungsten metallogeny of Sewariya granite in south Delhi fold belt, Rajasthan. J Geol Soc Ind 42:3–16Google Scholar
  7. Bhushan SK (1995) Late Proterozoic continental growth; implications from geochemistry of acid magmatic events of western Indian Craton Rajasthan. Memorial Geol Soc Ind 34:339–355Google Scholar
  8. Bhushan SK (2000) Malani rhyolite-a review. Gondwana Res 3:65–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bischoff JL, Pitzer KS (1989) Liquid-vapor relations for the system NaCl-H2O: summary of the P-T-x surface from 300 to 500 °C. Am J Sci 289:217–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bischoff JL (1991) Densities of liquids and vapors in boiling NaCl-H2O solutions: a PVTX summary from 300 to 500 °C. Am J Sci 291:309–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bodnar RJ (1992) Can we recognize magmatic fluid inclusions in fossil system based on room temperature phase relations and microthermometric behaviour? Geol Surv Jpn Rep 279:26–30Google Scholar
  12. Bodnar RJ (1994) Synthetic fluid inclusions. XII. experimental determination of the liquidus and isochors for a 40 wt % H2O-NaCl solution. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:1053–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bodnar RJ (1995) Fluid inclusion evidence for a magmatic source for metals in porphyry copper deposits. In: Thompson JFH (ed) Mineralog. Assoc. Canada Short Course, vol 23, pp 139–152Google Scholar
  14. Bodnar RJ, Reynolds TJ, Kuehn CA (1985) Fluid-inclusion systematics in epithermal systems. In: Berger BR, Bethke PM (ed) Geology and Geochemistry of Epithermal Systems. Reviews in Economic Geology, Soc. Econ. Geologists, vol 2, pp 73–97Google Scholar
  15. Bottrell SH, Yardley BWD (1988) The composition of a primary granite derived ore fluid from S.W. England, determined by fluid inclusion analysis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52:585–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brimhall GH Jr (1980) Deep hypogene oxidation of porphyry copper potassium-silicate proto-ore at Butte, Montana: a theoretical evaluation of the copper remobilization hypothesis. Econ Geol 75:384–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brimhall GH Jr, Ghiorso MS (1983) Origin and ore-forming consequences of the advanced argillic alteration process in hypogene environments by magmatic gas contamination of meteoric fluids. Econ Geol 78:73–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burnham CW (1967) Hydrothermal fluids at the magmatic stage. In: Barnes HL (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, holt. Rinehart and Winston Inc, New York, pp 34–76Google Scholar
  19. Burnham CW (1975) Water and magmas: a mixing model. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:1077–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burnham CW (1979) Magma and hydrothermal fluids. In: Barnes HL (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, 2nd edn. Wiley Interscience, New York, pp 71–136Google Scholar
  21. Burnham CW (1997) Magmas and hydrothermal fluids. In: Barnes HL (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, 3rd edn. Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 63–123Google Scholar
  22. Candela PA (1991) Physics of aqueous phase exsolution in plutonic environments. Am Mineral 76:1081–1091Google Scholar
  23. Candela PA (1992) Controls on ore metal ratios in granite-related ore systems: an experimental and computational approach. Trans R Soc Edinburgh: Earth Sci 83:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Candela PA (1997) A review of shallow, ore-related granites: textures, volatiles, and ore metals. J Petrol 38:1619–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Candela PA, and Blevin PL (1995) Physical and chemical magmatic controls on the size of magmatic–hydrothermal ore deposits. In: Clark AH (ed) Giant ore deposits- II. Kingston Queens University, pp 2–37Google Scholar
  26. Candela PA, Holland HD (1984) The Partitioning of copper and molybdenum between silicate melts and aqueous fluids. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Candela PA, Holland HD (1986) A mass transfer model for copper and molybdenum in magmatic hydrothermal systems: origin of porphyry-type ore deposits. Econ Geol 81:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Candel PA, Piccoli PM (1995) Model ore-metal partitioning from melts into vapor and vapor–brine mixtures. In: Thompson JFH (ed) Magmas fluids and ore deposits, Mineralalog. Assoc. Canada, Short-Course, vol 23, pp 101–127Google Scholar
  29. Carten RB, Geraghty EP, Walker BM (1988) Cyclic development of igneous features and their relationship to high-temperature hydrothermal features in the Henderson porphyry molybdenum deposit. Colorado Econ Geol 83:266–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cathles LM (1981) Fluid flow and genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. Econ Geol 75th Anniversary 424–457Google Scholar
  31. Chattopadhyay B, Chattopadhyay S, Bapna VS (1994) Geology and geochemistry of Degana Pluton a Proterozoic Rapakivi granite in Rajasthan, India. Mineral Petro 50:69–82Google Scholar
  32. Choudhary AK, Gopalan K, Sastry CA (1984) Present status of the geochronology of the precambrian rocks of Rajasthan. Tectonophysics 105:131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Christiansen EH, Burt DM, Sheridan MF, Wilson RT (1983) The petrogenesis of topaz rhyolites from the western United States. Contrib Miner Petrol 83:16–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cline JS, Bodnar RJ (1991) Can economic porphyry copper mineralization be generated by a typical calc-alkaline melt? J Geophys Res 96:8113–8126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cloos M (2002) Bubbling magma chambers, cupolas and porphyry copper deposits. In: Ernst G (ed) Frontiers in geochemistry, organic, solution, and ore deposit geochemistry, international book series, vol 6, pp 191–217Google Scholar
  36. Cooke DR, Simmons SF (2000) Characteristics and genesis of epithermal gold deposits. Rev Econ Geol 13:221–244Google Scholar
  37. Crawford ML (1981) Phase equilibria in aqueous fluid inclusions. In: Hollister LS, Crawford ML (eds) Short course in fluid inclusions, application to petrology, Mineralog. Ass. Canada, vol 6, pp 75–100Google Scholar
  38. Dilles JH, Einaudi MT (1992) Wall-rock alteration and hydrothermal flow paths about the Ann-Mason porphyry copper deposit, Nevada–a 6-km vertical reconstruction. Econ Geol 87:963–2001Google Scholar
  39. Drummond SE, Ohmoto H (1985) Chemical evolution and mineral deposition in boiling hydrothermal systems. Econ Geol 80:126–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Duan Z, Moller N, Weare JH (2003) Equations of state for the NaCl–H2O–CH4 system and the NaCl- H2O–CO2–CH4 system: phase equilibria and volumetric properties above 573 k. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67(4):671–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eadington PJ (1983) A fluid inclusion investigation of ore formation in a tin-mineralized granite, New England, New South Wales. Econ Geol 78:204–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eugster HP (1984) Granites and hydrothermal ore deposits: a geochemical framework. Miner Mag 49:7–23Google Scholar
  43. Frezzotti ML, Andersen T, Neumann ER, Simonsen SL (2002) Carbonatite melt–CO2 fluid inclusions in mantle xenoliths from Tenerife, Canary Islands: a story of trapping, immiscibility and fluid–rock interaction in the upper mantle. Lithos 64:77–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Groves DI (1993) The crustal continuum model for late-Archaean lode-gold deposits of the Yilgarn Block, Western Australia. Miner Deposita 28:366–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Groves DI, Goldfarb RJ, Robert F, Hart CJR (2003) Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research and exploration significance. Econ Geol 98:1–29Google Scholar
  46. Haas JLJ (1976) Physical properties of the coexisting phases and thermochemical properties of the H2O component in boiling NaCl solutions: Geol Surv Bull 1421-A:73Google Scholar
  47. Hanor JS (1979) The sedimentary genesis of hydrothermal fluids. In: Barnes HL (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, 2nd edn. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 137–168Google Scholar
  48. Hanson RB, Glazner AF (1995) Thermal requirements for extensional emplacement of granitoids. Geology 23:213–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harris AC, Kamenetsky VS, White NC, Van-Achterbergh E, Ryan CG (2003) Silicate-melt inclusions in quartz veins: linking magmas and porphyry Cu deposits. Science 302:2109–2111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hayba DO, Ingebritsen SE (1997) Multiphase ground water flow near cooling plutons. J Geophys Res 102:12235–12252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hedenquist JW, Lowenstern JB (1994) The role of magmas in the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits. Nature 370:519–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hedenquist JW, Arribas RA, Gonzalez UE. (2000) Exploration for epithermal gold deposits. In: Hagemann S, Brown PE (eds) Gold in 2000. Soc. Econ. Geologists, Rev. Econ. Geol., vol 13, pp 245–77Google Scholar
  53. Heinrich CA (2006) From fluid inclusion microanalysis to large scale hydrothermal mass transfer in the Earth’s interior. J Mineral Petro Sci 101:110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Heinrich CA, Ryan CG, Mernagh TP, Eadington PJ (1992) Segregation of ore metals between magmatic brine and vapor: a fluid inclusion study using PIXE microanalysis. Econ Geol 87:1566–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Heinrich CA, Gunther D, Audetat A, Ulrich T, Frischknecht R (1999) Metal fractionation between magmatic brine and vapour, determined by microanalysis of fluid inclusions. Geology 27:755–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Heinrich CA, Driesner T, Stefansson A, Seward TM (2004) Magmatic vapour contraction and the transport of gold from the porphyry environment to epithermal ore deposits. Geology 32:761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hellmann R (1994) The albite-water system: Part I. The kinetics of dissolution as a function of pH at 100, 200 and 300°C. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:595–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Holland HD (1972) Granites, solutions and base metal deposits. Econ Geol 67:281–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hutchison CS (1983) Economic deposits and their tectonic setting. Macmillan Press, London, p 365Google Scholar
  60. Jairath S, Sharma M (1986) Physico-chemical conditions of ore deposition in Malanjkhand copper sulphide deposit. Proc Ind Acad Sci Earth Planet Sci 95:209–221Google Scholar
  61. John DA Ballantyne GH (1998) Geology and ore deposits of the Oquirrh and Wasatch mountains, Utah: society of economic geologists guide book series, vol 29, p 256Google Scholar
  62. Keevil NB (1942) Vapor pressures of aqueous solutions at high temperatures. Am Chem Soc J 64:841–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kilinc IA, Burnham CW (1972) Partitioning of chloride between a silicate melt and coexisting aqueous phase from 2 to 8 kilobars. Econ Geol 67:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kirkham RV Sinclair WD (1988) Comb quartz layers in felsic intrusions and their relationship to the origin of porphyry deposits. In: Taylor RP, Strong DF (eds) Recent advances in the geology of granite-related mineral deposits. The Canadian institute of mining and metallurgy, vol 39, pp 50–71Google Scholar
  65. Kochher N (1973) The occurrence of ring dyke in the Tosham igneous complex, Hissar, Haryana. J Geol Soc Ind 14:190–193Google Scholar
  66. Krishnamurthi R, Sen AK, Pradeepkumar T, Sharma R (2010) Gold mineralization in the Southern granulite terrane of Peninsular India. In: Deb M, Goldfarb RJ (eds) Gold metallogeny in India and beyond. Narosa Pub, House Delhi, pp 222–233Google Scholar
  67. Landtwing M, Furrer C, Redmond P, Pettke T, Guillong M, Heinrich CA (2010) The Bingham canyon porphyry Cu–Mo– Au deposit. III. Zoned copper–gold ore deposition by magmatic vapour expansion. Econ Geol 105:91–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lattanzi P (1991) Applications of fluid inclusions in the study and exploration of mineral deposits. Eur J Miner 3:689–701Google Scholar
  69. Lemmlein GG, Klevtsov PV (1961) Relations among the principle thermodynamic parameters in a part of the system H2O-NaCl. Geochemistry 2:148–158Google Scholar
  70. Lindgren W (1933) Mineral deposits, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 930Google Scholar
  71. Linnen RL (1998) Depth of emplacement, fluid provenance and metallogeny in granitic Terrains: a comparison of western Thailand with other tin belts. Mineral Deposita 33:461–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lowenstern JB, Sinclair WD (1996) Exsolved magmatic fluid and its role in the formation of combined layered quartz at the Cretaceous Logtung W-Ma deposit, Yukon Territory, Canada. Trans R Soc Edinburgh: Earth Sci 87:291–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lowenstern JB (2001) Carbon dioxide in magmas and implications for hydrothermal systems. Mineral Deposita 36:490–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lowenstern JB, Mahood GA, Rivers ML, Sutton SR (1991) Evidence for extreme partitioning of copper into a magmatic vapor phase. Science 252:1405–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Manning D, Pichavant M (1984) Experimental studies of the role of fluorine and boron in the formation of late-stage granitic rocks and associated mineralization. Int Geol Cong 27:386–387Google Scholar
  76. Mavrogenes JA, Henley RW, Reyes AG, Berger B (2010) Sulphosalt melts: evidence of high-temperature vapour transport of metals in the formation of high-sulphidation lode gold. Econ Geol 105:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Misra B (2010) Metamorphism and hydrothermal fluid evolution in relation to gold metallogeny, Dharwar Craton, southern India. In: Deb M, Goldfarb RJ (eds) Gold metallogeny India and Beyond. Narosa publishing house Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, pp 154–167Google Scholar
  78. Misra B, Panigrahi MK (1999) Fluid evolution in the Kolar gold field: evidence from fluid inclusion studies. Miner Deposita 34:173–181Google Scholar
  79. Mollai H, Sharma R, Pe-Piper G (2009) Copper mineralization around the Ahar Batholith, north of Ahar, (NW Iran): evidence for fluid evolution and the origin of the skarn ore deposit. Ore Geol Rev 35:401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Monecke T, Kempe Ulf, Trinkler M, Thomas R, Dulski P, Wagner T (2011) Unusual rare earth element fractionation in a tin-bearing magmatic hydrothermal system. Geology 39:294–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nevin GC, Malli VM, Pandalai HS (2010) Modeling of Hutti gold deposits: Challenges and constraints. In: Deb M, Goldfarb RJ (eds) Gold metallogeny India and Beyond. Narosa publishing house Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, pp 168–190Google Scholar
  82. Norton DL (1984) Theory of hydrothermal systems. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 12:155–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Norton D, Knight J (1977) Transport phenomena in hydrothermal systems: cooling plutons. Am J Sci 277:937–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pandalai HS, Jadav GN, Mathew B, Panchapakesan V, Raju KK, Patil ML (2003) Dissolution channels in quartz and the role of pressure changes in gold and sulphide deposition in Archaean, greenstone-hosted, Hutti gold deposits, Karnataka, India. Miner Deposita 38:597–624Google Scholar
  85. Pandit MK, Sharma R (1999) Lithium mineralization in Proterozoic leucogranite, South Delhi Fold Belt, Western India : role of fluids in ore mobilization and deposition. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 71:67–88Google Scholar
  86. Panigrahi MK, Mookherjee A, Pantulu GVC, Gopalan K (1993) Granitoids around the Malanjkhand, copper deposit: Types, age relationship. Proc Ind Acad Sci Earth Planet Sci 102:399–413Google Scholar
  87. Panigrahi MK, Mookherjee A (1997) The Malanjkhand copper (+Molybdenum) deposit: mineralization from a low temperature ore fluid of granitoid affiliation. Mineral Deposita 32:133–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Panigrahi MK, Mishra KC, Bream B, Naik RK (2004) Age of granitic activity associated with copper molybdenum mineralization at Malanjkhand, Central India. Mineral Deposita 39:670–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Panigrahi MK, Naik RK, Pandit D, Mishra KC (2008) Reconstructing physico-chemical parameters of hydrothermal mineralization of copper at the Malanjkhand deposit, India, from mineral chemistry of biotite, chlorite and epidote. Geochem J 42:443–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pareek HS (1981) Petrochemistry and petrogenesis of Malani igneous suit, India. Geol Soc Am Bull 92:206–273Google Scholar
  91. Philips WJ (1973) Mechanical effects of retrograde boiling and its probable importance in the formation of some porphyry ore deposits. Inst Min Metall Sect 82:90–97Google Scholar
  92. Pirajno F (2009) Hydrothermal processes and mineral systems. Springer science. Springer, Berlin, p 1250Google Scholar
  93. Pitzer KS, Pabalan RT (1986) Thermodynamics of NaCl in steam. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 50:1445–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pollard PJ, Taylor RG (1986) Progressive evolution of alteration and tin mineralization: controls by interstitial permeability and fracture-related tapping of magmatic fluid reservoirs in tin granites. Econ Geol 81:1795–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pollard PJ, Andrew AS, Taylor RG (1991) Fluid inclusions and stable isotope evidence for interaction between granites and magmatic hydrothermal fluid during formation of disseminated and pipe type mineralization at Zariplaats Tin mine. Econ Geol 86:121–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Potter RW II, Babcock RS, Brown DL (1977) A new method for determining the solubility of salts in aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures. U.S Geol Surv J Res 5:389–395Google Scholar
  97. Ramanathan A, Bagchi J, Panchapakesan J, Sahu BK (1990) Sulphide mineralization at Malanjkhand—a study. Geol Surv India Spec Publ 28:585–598Google Scholar
  98. Robb L (2005) Introduction to ore forming processes. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, p 373Google Scholar
  99. Roedder E (1984) Fluid inclusions: reviews in mineralogy. Rev Mineral Soc Am 12:644Google Scholar
  100. Roedder E (1992) Fluid inclusion evidence for immiscibility in magmatic differentiation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 56:5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Roedder E, Bodnar RJ (1980) Geologic pressure determinations from fluid inclusions studies. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 8:263–301Google Scholar
  102. Romberger SB (1982) Transport and deposition of gold and the transport of gold in hydrothermal ore solutions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 37:370–399Google Scholar
  103. Ross PS, Jebrak M, Walker BM (2002) Discharge of hydrothermal fluids from a magma chamber and concomitant formation of a stratified breccia zone at the Questa porphyry molybdenum deposit, New Mexico. Econ Geol 97:1679–1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rusk BG, Reed MH, Dilles JH (2008) Fluid inclusion evidence for magmatic-hydrothermal Fluid Evolution in the Porphyry Copper—molybdenum deposit at Butte. Montana Econ Geol 103:307–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rye RO (1993) The evolution of magmatic fluids in the epithermal environment: the stable isotope perspective. Econ Geol 88:733–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sarkar SC (2010) Gold mineralization in India: an introduction. In: Deb M, Goldfarb RJ (eds) Gold metallogeny India and Beyond. Narosa publishing house Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, pp 95–122Google Scholar
  107. Sarkar SC, Kabiraj S, Bhattacharya S, Pal AB (1996) Nature, origin, evolution of granitoid-hosted early Proterozoic copper-molybdenum mineralization at Malanjkhand, Central India. Mineral Deposita 31:419–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Seedorff E, Einaudi MT (2004) Henderson Porphyry Molybdenum system, Colorado: II. decoupling of introduction and deposition of metals during geochemical evolution of hydrothermal fluids. Econ Geol 99:39–72Google Scholar
  109. Seo J, Guillong M, Heinrich CA (2009) The role of sulphur in the formation of magmatic-hydrothermal copper -gold deposits. Earth Planet Sci Lett 282:323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Shannon JR, Walker BM, Carten RB, Geraghty EP (1982) Unidirectional solidification textures and their significance in determining relative ages of intrusions at the Henderson mine, Colorado. Geology 19:293–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sharma R, Srivastava P, Naik MS (1994) Hydrothermal fluids of the tungsten mineralization near Balda, the district of Sirohi, Rajasthan, India. Petrology 2:589–596Google Scholar
  112. Sharma R, Banerjee S, Pandit MK (2003) W- mineralization in Sewariya area, South Delhi fold belt, Northwesten India: fluid inclusion evidence for tungsten transport and conditions of ore formation. J Geol Soc Ind 61:37–50Google Scholar
  113. Shinohara H (1994) Exsolution of immiscible vapor and liquid phases from a crystallizing silicate melt: implications for chlorine and metal transport. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:5215–5221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shinohara H, Kazahaya K (1995) Degassing processes related to magma chamber crystallization. In: Thompson JFH (ed) Magmas fluids and ore deposits. Mineralog. Ass. Canada Short Course, vol 23, pp 47–70Google Scholar
  115. Shinohara H, Kazahaya K, Lowenstern JB (1995) Volatile transport in a convecting magma column: Implications for porphyry Mo mineralization. Geology 23:1091–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shinohara H, Hedenquist J (1997) Constraints on magma degassing beneath the far Southeast Porphyry Cu–Au deposit, Philippines. J Petrol 38:1741–1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shinohara H, Iiyama JT, Matsuo S (1989) Partition of chlorine compounds between silicate melt and hydrothermal solutions; I partition of NaCl-KCl. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:2617–2630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sikka DB, Nehru CE (2002) Malanjkhand copper deposit, India: is it not a porphyry type? J Geol Soc India 59:339–362Google Scholar
  119. Simon AC, Pettke T, Candela P, Piccoli P, Heinrich C (2007) The partitioning behaviour of As and Au in S-free and S-bearing magmatic assemblages. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:1764–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sinclair WD (2007) Porphyry deposits. In: Goodfellow WD (ed) Mineral deposits of Canada: a synthesis of major deposit-types, district metallogeny, the evolution of geological provinces, and exploration methods, Geol. Ass. Canada, mineral deposits division, no 5, pp 223–243Google Scholar
  121. Sobolev VS, Kostyuk VP (1975) Magmatic crystallization based on a study of melt inclusions. Fluid Incl Res 9:182–235Google Scholar
  122. Sourirajan S, Kennedy GC (1962) The system H2O-NaCl at elevated temperatures and pressures. Am J Sci 260:115–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Srivastava PK (2004) Geochemistry and tungsten potential of Balda granite, Balda, Sirohi district, Northwestern India. J Econ Geol Res Manage 1:205–216Google Scholar
  124. Srivastava PK, Sharma R (2008) Hydrothermal fluids linked with tungsten province of Balda-Tosham belt, Northwest India. Mem Geol Soc Ind 72:125–144Google Scholar
  125. Srivastava PK, Sinha AK (1997) Geochemical Characterization of tungsten-bearing granites from Rajasthan, India. J Geochem Exp 60:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Srivastava PK, Sukhchain (2005) Petrographic characteristics and alteration geochemistry of granite-hosted tungsten mineralization at Degana, NW India. Res Geol 55:373–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Srivastava PK, Sukhchain (2007) Geochemistry of the trioctahedral micas from Degana Granite. J Geol Soc Ind 69:1203–1208Google Scholar
  128. Stein HJ, Hannah JL, Zimmerman A, Markey RJ, Sarkar SC, Pal AB (2004) A 2.5 Ga porphyry Cu–Mo–Au deposit at Malanjkhand, Central India: implications for late Archean continental assembly. Precamb Res 134:189–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sterner SM, Hall DL, Bodnar RJ (1988) Synthetic fluid inclusions. V. Solubility relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O under vapor-saturated conditions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52:989–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stolper E (1982) The speciation of water in silicate melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 46:2609–2620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Symonds RB, Reed MH, Rose WI (1992) Origin, speciation and fluxes of trace element gases at Augustine volcano, Alaska: insights into magma degassing and fumarolic processes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 56:633–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Thompson AB, Aerts M, Hack AC (2007) Liquid immiscibility in silicate melts and related systems. In: LiebscherA, Heinrich C (eds) Fluid equilibria in the crust, Mineralog. Soc. Am., Rev. Mineralogy Geochemistry, vol 65, pp 99–128Google Scholar
  133. Touret JLR, Thompson AB (1993) Fluid-rock interaction in the deeper continental lithosphere. Chem Geol 108:230Google Scholar
  134. Ulrich T, Gunther D, Heinrich C (1999) Gold concentrations of magmatic brines and the metal budget of porphyry copper deposits. Nature 399:676–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wahrenberger C. Seward TM, Dietrich V (2002) Volatile trace element transport in high temperature gases from Kudriavy volcano (Iturup, Kurile Islands, Russia). In: Hellmann R, Wood SA (eds) Water-rock Interaction, Ore deposits and environmental geochemisty: atribute to David A. Crerar, Geochem. Soc. no 7, pp 307–327Google Scholar
  136. Webster JD, Holloway JR (1990) Partitioning of F and Cl between magmatic hydrothermal fluids and highly evolved granitic magmas. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 246:21–34Google Scholar
  137. Wen S, Nekvasil H (1994) Ideal associated solutions: application to the system albite-quartz-H2O. Am Mineralogist 79:316–331Google Scholar
  138. Whitney JA (1975) Vapour generation in a quartz monzonite magma: a synthetic model with application to porphyry copper deposits. Econ Geol 70:346–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Whitney JA (1984) Volatiles in magmatic systems. In: Whitney JA, Henley RW, Truesdell AH, Barton PB (eds) Fluid-mineral equilibria in hydrothermal systems. Soc. Econ. Geologists, Rev. Econ. Geol., vol 1, pp 155–175Google Scholar
  140. Whitney J (1989) Origin and evolution of silicic magmas. Rev Econ Geol 4:83–201Google Scholar
  141. Wilkinson JJ (2001) Fluid inclusions in hydrothermal ore deposits. Lithos 55:229–272Google Scholar
  142. Williams-Jones AE, Heinrich CA (2005) Vapour transport of metals and the formation of magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits. Econ Geol 100:1287–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Williams-Jones AE, Migdisov AA, Archibald S, Xiao Z (2002) Vapour-transport of ore metals. In: Hellmann R, Wood S (eds) Water–rock interaction, ore deposits and environmental geochemistry: atribute to David A. Crerar. The Geochemical Society, no. 7, pp 279–306Google Scholar
  144. Zeng Q, Nekvasil H (1996) An associated solution model for albite-water melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:59–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Zezin DYu, Migdisov AA, Williams-Jones AE (2011) PVTx properties of H2O–H2S fluid mixtures at elevated temperature and pressure based on new experimental data. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:5483–5495CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wadia Institute of Himalayan GeologyDehra DunIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeologyUniversity of JammuJammuIndia

Personalised recommendations