Investigations of Bulk Li–Mn–Ni–O Samples to Confirm the Combinatorial Studies

Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)


The key features in the Li–Mn–Ni–O pseudo-ternary phase diagrams, as determined using combinatorial samples, were confirmed with bulk samples synthesized under various conditions via two different synthesis routes. The four-phase equilibrium was observed and transformations were found to be reversible, thereby confirming that two three-phase regions exist and transform during slow cooling. The primary importance of this work is a better understanding of how the phase boundaries and coexisting regions transform when cooled at rates typically used commercially. It is also important to recognize that a small amount of transformation occurred even for samples quenched on a copper or steel plate. These changes cannot be avoided entirely without quenching in liquid nitrogen or avoiding the compositions where the transformations occur. Understanding the phase diagrams should have a significant impact on research focused on composite electrodes in the Li–Mn–Ni–O system, since this work identified the compositions and conditions required to obtain layered–layered nano-composites and layered–spinel composites.


Bulk Sample Slow Cool Composite Electrode Combinatorial Sample Gibbs Triangle 
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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics and Atmospheric Sciences Dept.Dalhousie UniversityHalifax, Nova ScotiaCanada

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