Conclusions and Future Works

Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)


Figure 10.1 shows the Li–Co–Mn–Ni–O pseudo-quaternary system with the Li–Co–Mn–O and Li–Mn–Ni–O faces shown, as determined with combinatorial samples quenched from 800 °C. Some approximations were made to join the two faces since the Li-Co-Mn-O face was synthesized in air while the nickel containing samples were made in oxygen. Nonetheless, the two faces join quite well. The pyramid strongly suggests that both single-phase regions of importance for battery materials, spinel and layered, extend into the pyramid and form relatively large three dimensional shapes. On the Li–Co–Mn–O system, the layered region is restricted to a single line showing that cobalt is always synthesized in the 3+ state as it is in LiCoO2. By contrast, nickel can be in the 2+ state as in NiO rocksalt or the 3+ state as in layered LiNiO2 such that a much larger and more complex layered region exists on the Li–Mn–Ni–O face. The spinel-layered co-existence region is also simpler in the Li–Co–Mn–O triangle with all tie-lines connecting to either the cobalt spinel, Co3O4, or the manganese layered material, Li2MnO3, while in the Li–Mn–Ni–O system there are 2 three-phase regions. The differences between the roles of cobalt and nickel should prove significant in upcoming combinatorial work in the Li–Co–Mn–Ni–O pseudo-quaternary system that is of extreme interest for battery materials as it includes commercial materials such as Li[Ni\(_{1/3}\)Mn\(_{1/3}\)Co\(_{1/3}\)]O2 [93] as well as promising spinel-layered core-shell materials [88] and lithium-rich layered materials [3].


Battery Material Positive Electrode Material Composition Line Transition Metal Layer Cobalt Spinel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics and Atmospheric Sciences Dept.Dalhousie UniversityHalifax, Nova ScotiaCanada

Personalised recommendations