Error Propagation, Two Variables

  • Michael Grabe


Well-defined measuring conditions enhance the prospect for traceability.


Systematic Error Series Expansion Random Error Physical Constant Uncertainty Component 
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Works by the Author

  1. 23.
    M. Grabe, Principles of “Metrological statistics”. Metrologia 23, 213–219 (1986/1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 25.
    M. Grabe, A new formalism for the combination and propagation of random and systematic errors, in Measurement Science Conference, Los Angeles, 8–9 February 1990 Google Scholar
  3. 26.
    M. Grabe, Über die Interpretation empirischer Kovarianzen bei der Abschätzung von Meßunsicherheiten. PTB-Mitt. 100, 181–186 (1990) Google Scholar
  4. 32.
    M. Grabe, Gedanken zur Revision der Gauss’schen Fehlerrechnung. Tech. Mess. 67, 283–288 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 34.
    M. Grabe, Estimation of measurement uncertainties—an alternative to the ISO guide. Metrologia 38, 97–106 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 35.
    M. Grabe, Neue Formalismen zum Schätzen von Meßunsicherheiten – Ein Beitrag zum Verknüpfen und Fortpflanzen von Meßfehlern. Tech. Mess. 3, 142–150 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 37.
    M. Grabe, On measurement uncertainties derived from “Metrological statistics”, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Algorithms for Approximations, ed. by J. Levesley, I. Anderson, J.C. Mason, The University of Huddersfield, July 2001, pp. 154–161 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Grabe
    • 1
  1. 1.BraunschweigGermany

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