Part of the SpringerBriefs in Computer Science book series (BRIEFSCOMPUTER)


This chapter introduces some basic definitions related to context-aware systems and presents a taxonomy for such systems. Both are useful in the following sections. The taxonomy is well suited for guiding the architectural decisions of application developers; it is built around the four main layers found in context-aware systems considering context data from the moment it is acquired by sensors in raw format to the moment it is consumed by the end-user application: capture, infer, distribution, and consume. In this chapter we address each one of such layers.


Mobile Phone Context Information Inference Engine Context Data Client Application 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Abowd, G.D., Dey, A.K., Brown, P.J., Davies, N., Smith, M., Steggles, P.: Towards a better understanding of context and context-awareness. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing, HUC ’99, pp. 304–307. Springer, London (1999).
  2. 6.
    Alves, P., Ferreira, P.: Reconmuc: adaptable consistency requirements for efficient large-scale multi-user chat. In: Proceedings of the ACM 2011 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW ’11, pp. 553–562. ACM, New York (2011). doi:10.1145/1958824.1958909.
  3. 7.
    Baldauf, M., Dustdar, S., Rosenberg, F.: A survey on context- aware systems. Int. J. Ad Hoc Ubiquitous Comput. 2(4), 263–277 (2007). doi:10.1504/IJAHUC.2007.014070.
  4. 8.
    Bardram, J.E., Hansen, T.R.: The aware architecture: supporting context-mediated social awareness in mobile cooperation. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW ’04, pp. 192–201. ACM, New York (2004). doi:10.1145/1031607.1031639.
  5. 9.
    Bardram, J.E., Hansen, T.R., Soegaard, M.: Awaremedia: a shared interactive display supporting social, temporal, and spatial awareness in surgery. In: Proceedings of the 2006 20th Anniversary Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW ’06, pp. 109–118. ACM, New York (2006). doi:10.1145/1180875.1180892.
  6. 12.
    Bolchini, C., Curino, C.A., Quintarelli, E., Schreiber, F.A., Tanca, L.: A data-oriented survey of context models. SIGMOD Rec. 36(4), 19–26 (2007). doi:10.1145/1361348.1361353. Google Scholar
  7. 14.
    Brown, P., Bovey, J., Chen, X.: Context-aware applications: from the laboratory to the marketplace. IEEE Pers. Comm. 4(5), 58–64 (1997). doi:10.1109/98.626984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 15.
    Cano, J.C., Manzoni, P., Toh, C.K.: Ubiqmuseum: a bluetooth and java based context-aware system for ubiquitous computing. Wireless Pers. Comm. 38(2), 187–202 (2006). doi:10.1007/s11277-005-9001-x.
  9. 16.
    Carzaniga, A., Rosenblum, D.S., Wolf, A.L.: Design and evaluation of a wide-area event notification service. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 19(3), 332–383 (2001). doi:10.1145/380749.380767. Google Scholar
  10. 20.
    Chakraborty, D., Dasgupta, K., Mittal, S., Misra, A., Gupta, A., Newmark, E., Oberle, C.: Businessfinder: harnessing presence to enable live yellow pages for small, medium and micro mobile businesses. IEEE Comm. Mag. 45(1), 144–151 (2007). doi:10.1109/MCOM.2007.284550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 22.
    Chen, G., Kotz, D.: A survey of context-aware mobile computing research. Dartmouth Computer Science Technical Report TR2000-381, pp. 1–16 (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 23.
    Chen, G., Kotz, D.: Context aggregation and dissemination in ubiquitous computing systems. In: Proceedings of the 4th IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, WMCSA ’02, pp. 105–14. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (2002).
  13. 25.
    Cheverst, K., Mitchell, K., Davies, N.: Design of an object model for a context sensitive tourist {GUIDE}. Comput. Graph. 23(6), 883–891 (1999). doi:
  14. 26.
    Cheverst, K., Smith, G., Mitchell, K., Friday, A., Davies, N.: The role of shared context in supporting cooperation between city visitors. Comput. Graph. 25(4), 555–562 (2001). doi:
  15. 27.
    Cheverst, K., Mitchell, K., Davies, N.: Exploring context-aware information push. Pers. Ubiquit. Comput. 6(4), 276–281 (2002). doi:10.1007/s007790200028.
  16. 31.
    Cowzer, N., Quigley, A.: Geoigm: a location-aware igm platform. In: Enabling Technologies: Infrastructures for Collaborative Enterprises, 2009. The 18th IEEE International Workshops on WETICE ’09, pp. 105–110 (2009). doi:10.1109/WETICE.2009.29Google Scholar
  17. 33.
    Dey, A., Mankoff, J., Abowd, G., Carter, S.: Distributed mediation of ambiguous context in aware environments. In: Proceedings of the 15th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST ’02, pp. 121–130. ACM, New York (2002). doi:10.1145/571985.572003.
  18. 36.
    Eisenman, S.B., Miluzzo, E., Lane, N.D., Peterson, R.A., Ahn, G.S., Campbell, A.T.: The bikenet mobile sensing system for cyclist experience mapping. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, SenSys ’07, pp. 87–101. ACM, New York (2007). doi:10.1145/1322263.1322273.
  19. 38.
    Fitzpatrick, G., Mansfield, T., Kaplan, S., Arnold, D., Phelps, T., Segall, B.: Augmenting the workaday world with elvin. In: Bødker, S., Kyng, M., Schmidt, K. (eds.) ECSCW ’99, pp. 431–450. Springer, Netherlands (2002). doi:10.1007/0-306-47316-X_23.
  20. 39.
    Fogarty, J., Hudson, S.E.: Toolkit support for developing and deploying sensor-based statistical models of human situations. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’07, pp. 135–144. ACM, New York (2007). doi:10.1145/1240624.1240645.
  21. 40.
    Fogarty, J., Lai, J., Christensen, J.: Presence versus availability: the design and evaluation of a context-aware communication client. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 61(3), 299–317 (2004). doi: Google Scholar
  22. 45.
    Henricksen, K., Indulska, J., McFadden, T., Balasubramaniam, S.: Middleware for distributed context-aware systems. In: Meersman, R., Tari, Z. (eds.) On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2005: CoopIS, DOA, and ODBASE. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3760, pp. 846–863. Springer, Berlin (2005). doi:10.1007/11575771_53.
  23. 46.
    Hightower, J., Borriello, G.: Location systems for ubiquitous computing. Computer 34(8), 57–66 (2001). doi:10.1109/2.940014. Google Scholar
  24. 47.
    Hofer, T., Schwinger, W., Pichler, M., Leonhartsberger, G., Altmann, J., Retschitzegger, W.: Context-awareness on mobile devices: the hydrogen approach. In: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2003, p. 10 (2003) doi:10.1109/HICSS.2003.1174831Google Scholar
  25. 49.
    Indulska, J., Sutton, P.: Location management in pervasive systems. In: Proceedings of the Australasian Information Security Workshop Conference on ACSW Frontiers 2003, vol. 21, pp. 143–151. Australian Computer Society, Inc., Darlinghurst (2003).
  26. 50.
    Jovanovic, M.: Modeling large-scale peer-to-peer networks and a case study of Gnutella. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cincinnati (2001).
  27. 54.
    Laerhoven, K.: Combining the self-organizing map and k-means clustering for on-line classification of sensor data. In: Dorffner, G., Bischof, H., Hornik, K. (eds.) Artificial Neural Networks - ICANN 2001. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2130, pp. 464–469. Springer, Berlin (2001). doi:10.1007/3-540-44668-0_65.
  28. 57.
    Lu, H., Pan, W., Lane, N.D., Choudhury, T., Campbell, A.T.: Soundsense: scalable sound sensing for people-centric applications on mobile phones. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, MobiSys ’09, pp. 165–178. ACM, New York (2009). doi:10.1145/1555816.1555834.
  29. 59.
    Miluzzo, E., Lane, N.D., Fodor, K., Peterson, R., Lu, H., Musolesi, M., Eisenman, S.B., Zheng, X., Campbell, A.T.: Sensing meets mobile social networks: the design, implementation and evaluation of the cenceme application. In: Proceedings of the 6th ACM Conference on Embedded Network Sensor Systems, SenSys ’08, pp. 337–350. ACM, New York (2008). doi:10.1145/1460412.1460445.
  30. 62.
    Oulasvirta, A., Raento, M., Tiitta, S.: Contextcontacts: re-designing smartphone’s contact book to support mobile awareness and collaboration. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, MobileHCI ’05, pp. 167–174. ACM, New York (2005). doi:10.1145/1085777.1085805.
  31. 64.
    Pascoe, J., Ryan, N., Morse, D.: Human-computer-giraffe interaction: HCI in the field. Technology (1998).
  32. 66.
    Prekop, P., Burnett, M.: Activities, context and ubiquitous computing. Comput. Comm. 26(11), 1168–1176 (2003). doi:
  33. 68.
    Priyantha, N.B., Chakraborty, A., Balakrishnan, H.: The cricket location-support system. In: Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MobiCom ’00, pp. 32–43. ACM, New York (2000). doi:10.1145/345910.345917.
  34. 71.
    Quinlan, J.: Induction of decision trees. Mach. Learn. 1(1), 81–106 (1986). doi:10.1007/BF00116251.
  35. 72.
    Raento, M., Oulasvirta, A., Petit, R., Toivonen, H.: Contextphone: a prototyping platform for context-aware mobile applications. IEEE Pervasive Comput. 4(2), 51–59 (2005). doi:10.1109/MPRV.2005.29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 74.
    Randell, C., Muller, H.: Context awareness by analysing accelerometer data. In: The 4th International Symposium on Wearable Computers, pp. 175–176 (2000). doi:10.1109/ISWC.2000.888488Google Scholar
  37. 75.
    Ratnasamy, S., Karp, B., Yin, L., Yu, F., Estrin, D., Govindan, R., Shenker, S.: Ght: a geographic hash table for data-centric storage. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, WSNA ’02, pp. 78–87. ACM, New York (2002). doi:10.1145/570738.570750.
  38. 77.
    Riché, S., Brebner, G.: Storing and accessing user context. In: Chen, M.S., Chrysanthis, P., Sloman, M., Zaslavsky, A. (eds.) Mobile Data Management. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2574, pp. 1–12. Springer, Berlin (2003). doi:10.1007/3-540-36389-0_1.
  39. 79.
    Saint-Andre, P.: Streaming xml with jabber/xmpp. IEEE Internet Comput. 9(5), 82–89 (2005). doi:10.1109/MIC.2005.110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 80.
    Saito, Y., Shapiro, M.: Optimistic replication. ACM Comput. Surv. 37(1), 42–81 (2005). doi:10.1145/1057977.1057980.
  41. 81.
    Salber, D., Dey, A.K., Abowd, G.D.: The context toolkit: aiding the development of context-enabled applications. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’99, pp. 434–441. ACM, New York (1999). doi:10.1145/302979.303126.
  42. 82.
    Santos, A., Tarrataca, L., Cardoso, J., Ferreira, D., Diniz, P., Chainho, P.: Context inference for mobile applications in the upcase project. In: Bonnin, J.M., Giannelli, C., Magedanz, T. (eds.) Mobile Wireless Middleware, Operating Systems, and Applications. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, vol. 7, pp. 352–365. Springer, Berlin (2009). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-01802-2_26.
  43. 83.
    Satyanarayanan, M.: Pervasive computing: vision and challenges. IEEE Pers. Comm. 8(4), 10–17 (2001). doi:10.1109/98.943998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 85.
    Schilit, B., Adams, N., Want, R.: Context-aware computing applications. In: Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications 1994, WMCSA ’94, pp. 85–90. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (1994). doi:10.1109/WMCSA.1994.16.
  45. 86.
    Schmidt, A., Beigl, M., Gellersen, H.W.: There is more to context than location. Comput. Graph. 23(6), 893–901 (1999). doi: Google Scholar
  46. 88.
    Segall, B., Arnold, D., Boot, J., Henderson, M., Phelps, T.: Content based routing with elvin4. In: Proceedings of AUUG’00 (2000)Google Scholar
  47. 91.
    Stiefmeier, T., Lombriser, C., Roggen, D., Junker, H., Ogris, G., Troester, G.: Event-based activity tracking in work environments. In: The 3rd International Forum on Applied Wearable Computing (IFAWC) 2006, pp. 1–10 (2006)Google Scholar
  48. 94.
    Van Laerhoven, K., Cakmakci, O.: What shall we teach our pants? In: The 4th International Symposium on Wearable Computers, pp. 77–83 (2000). doi:10.1109/ISWC.2000.888468Google Scholar
  49. 97.
    Welbourne, E., Lester, J., LaMarca, A., Borriello, G.: Mobile context inference using low-cost sensors. In: Strang, T., Linnhoff-Popien, C. (eds.) Location- and Context-Awareness. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3479, pp. 254–263. Springer, Berlin (2005). doi:10.1007/11426646_24.
  50. 99.
    Widrow, B., Rumelhart, D.E., Lehr, M.A.: Neural networks: applications in industry, business and science. Comm. ACM 37(3), 93–105 (1994). doi:10.1145/175247.175257.
  51. 100.
    Zander, S., Schandl, B.: A framework for context-driven rdf data replication on mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Semantic Systems, I-SEMANTICS ’10, pp. 22:1–22:5. ACM, New York (2010). doi:10.1145/1839707.1839735.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INESC ID, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal

Personalised recommendations