The Problem

  • Ian Fentiman


There is substantial evidence of deleterious health behaviour in males both in terms of high-risk activities and avoidance of contact with doctors. This manifests as delay in diagnosis and upstaging of disease with a consequent worsening of prognosis. The incidence of male breast cancer is rising worldwide and this is not just as a result of increasing lifespan in that age standardised rates are also increasing. Neonatal breast tissue demonstrates plasticity irrespective of gender. Normal male breast anatomy is similar to that of prepubertal females but is often overshadowed by the presence of gynaecomastia, particularly in the overweight. The lack of model systems including established human MBC cell lines has hindered research but with collaborative studies there is promise of better understanding and treatment for MBC in the future.


Male Breast Cancer Male Breast Cancer Female Breast Cancer Breast International Group Male Breast Cancer Case 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Fentiman
    • 1
  1. 1.Research OncologyGuy’s HospitalLondonUnited Kingdom

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