Discussion and Conclusion

Part of the International Studies in Entrepreneurship book series (ISEN, volume 30)


Findings on “familiness” and entrepreneurship of the eight family businesses were presented in the last three chapters. Both consistencies and inconsistencies were found between the two sets of findings. Although the firm-level “familiness” framework was effective to interpret the consistencies, it lacked explanatory power for the inconsistencies. An additional individual-level dimension was therefore proposed in order to reconcile and rationalise the findings, particularly with regard to the inconsistencies. The individual-level investigation was generally guided by an Ability-Motivation-Opportunity (AMO) approach and generated supplementary insights, which, combined with the firm-level findings from earlier chapters, are potentially indicative of systematic patterns of entrepreneurial processes and innovations in the second-generation Chinese family businesses.


Entrepreneurial Activity Market Orientation Family Business Entrepreneurial Opportunity Entrepreneurial Behaviour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aldrich, H. E., & Cliff, J. E. (2003). The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: Toward a family embeddedness perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 573–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldrich, H. E., & Kenworthy, A. (1999). The accidental entrepreneur: Campbellian antinomies and organizational foundings. In J. Baum & B. McKelvey (Eds.), Variations in organization science: In honor of Donald Campbell. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez, S. A., & Barney, J. B. (2007). Discovery and creation: Alternative theories of entrepreneurial action. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1–2), 11–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, A. R., Jack, S. L., & Dodd, S. D. (2005). The role of family members in entrepreneurial networks: Beyond the boundaries of the family firm. Family Business Review, 18(2), 135–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arregle, J., Hitt, M. A., Sirmon, D. G., & Very, P. (2007). The development of organizational social capital: Attributes of family firms. Journal of Management Studies, 44(1), 73–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Astrachan, J. H., Klein, S. B., & Smyrnios, K. X. (2002). The F-PEC scale of family influence: A proposal for solving the family business definition problem. Family Business Review, 15(1), 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atuahene-Gima, K. (1996). Market orientation and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 35(2), 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker, T., Gedajlovic, E., & Lubatkin, M. (2005). A framework for comparing entrepreneurship processes across nations. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(5), 492–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barach, J. A., Ganitsky, J., Carson, J. A., & Doochin, B. A. (1988). Entry of the next generation: Strategic challenge for family business. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(2), 49–56.Google Scholar
  10. Beck, L., Janssens, W., Debruyne, M., & Lommelen, T. (2011). A study of the relationships between generation, market orientation, and innovation in family firms. Family Business Review, 24(3), 252–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennett, R. C., & Cooper, R. C. (1981). The misuse of marketing: An American tragedy. Business Horizons, 24(6), 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bird, B., Welsh, H., Astrachan, J. H., & Pistrui, D. (2002). Family business research: The evolution of an academic field. Family Business Review, 15(4), 337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brockhaus, R. H. (2004). Family business succession: Suggestions for future research. Family Business Review, 17(2), 165–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cadieux, L. (2007). Succession in small and medium-sized family businesses: Toward a typology of predecessor roles during and after instatement of the successor. Family Business Review, 20(2), 95–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carlock, R. S., & Ward, J. L. (2001). Strategic planning for the family business: Parallel planning to unify the family and business. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Casson, M. (1982). The entrepreneur. Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble Books.Google Scholar
  18. Chen, H. (2005). Analysis on pan-familism culture in Chinese private companies. Business Economics and Administration, 9(167), 38–42.Google Scholar
  19. Chinese Private Economy Research Society. (2011). Zhongguo jiazu qiye fazhan baogao (Chinese family business report). Beijing: CITIC Press.Google Scholar
  20. Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., & Sharma, P. (2005). Trends and directions in the development of a strategic management theory of the family firm. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5), 555–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., & Steier, L. P. (2003). An introduction to theories of family business. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(4), 441–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chua, J. H., Chrisman, J. J., & Chang, E. P. C. (2004). Are family firms born or made? An exploratory investigation. Family Business Review, 17(1), 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chua, J. H., Chrisman, J. J., & Sharma, P. (1999). Defining the family business by behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 23(4), 19–39.Google Scholar
  24. Cliff, J. E., & Jennings, P. D. (2005). Commentary on the multidimensional degree of family influence construct and the F-PEC measurement instrument. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(3), 3341–3348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Craig, J. B., Irana, W., & Moores, K. (2011). The Deague family: Learning entrepreneurship through osmosis. In K. Au, J. B. Craig & K. Ramachandran (Eds.), Family enterprises in the Asia Pacific: Exploring transgenerational entrepreneurship in family firms. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  26. Davidsson, P. (2004). Researching entrepreneurship. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Davidsson, P., & Wiklund, J. (2001). Levels of analysis in entrepreneurship research: Current research practice and suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4), 81–99.Google Scholar
  28. Dibrell, C., Craig, J. B., & Hansen, E. N. (2011). How managerial attitudes toward the natural environment affect market orientation and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 64(4), 401–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dodgson, M. (2011). Exploring new combination in innovation and entrepreneurship: Social networks, Schumpeter, and the case of Josiah Wedgwood (1730–1795). Industrial and Corporate Change, 20(4), 1119–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dore, R. P., & Whittaker, D. H. (2001). Social evolution, economic development and culture: What it means to take Japan seriously. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dunn, B. (1995). Success themes in Scottish family enterprises: Philosophies and practices through generations. Family Business Review, 8(1), 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fletcher, D. E. (2004). “Interpreneurship”: Organisational (re)emergence and entrepreneurial development in a second-generation family firm. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 10(1/2), 34–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gallo, M. A. (1995). The role of family business and its distinctive characteristic behaviour in industrial activity. Family Business Review, 8(2), 83–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. García-Álvarez, E., López-Sintas, J., & Gonzalvo, P. S. (2002). Socialization patterns of successors in first- to second-generation family businesses. Family Business Review, 15(3), 189–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gartner, W. B. (1988). “Who is an entrepreneur?” is the wrong question. American Journal of Small Business, 12(4), 11–32.Google Scholar
  36. Gersick, K. E., Davis, J. A., McCollom-Hampton, M., & Lansberg, I. (1997). Generation to generation: Life cycles of the family business. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  37. Gomez-Mejia, L. R., Nunez-Nickel, M., & Gutierrez, I. (2001). The role of family ties in agency contracts. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gudmundson, D., Hartman, E. A., & Tower, C. B. (1999). Strategic orientation: Differences between family and nonfamily firms. Family Business Review, 12(1), 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Habbershon, T. G., & Williams, M. L. (1999). A resource-based framework for assessing the strategic advantage of family firms. Family Business Review, 12(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Habbershon, T. G., Williams, M. L., & MacMillan, I. C. (2003). A unified systems perspective of family firm performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(4), 451–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hall, A., Melin, L., & Nordqvist, M. (2001). Entrepreneurship as radical changes in the family business: Exploring the role of cultural patterns. Family Business Review, 14(3), 193–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Handler, W. C. (1989). Methodological issues and considerations in studying family businesses. Family Business Review, 2(3), 257–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harkness, J. A. (2003). Questionnaire translation. In J. A. Harkness, F. J. R. van de Vijver & P. P. Mohler (Eds.), Cross-cultural survey methods. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Harris, R., Martinez, J., & Ward, J. L. (1994). Is strategy different for the family-owned business? Family Business Review, 7(2), 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heck, R. K. Z., Hoy, F., Poutziouris, P. Z., & Steier, L. P. (2008). Emerging paths of family entrepreneurship research. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(3), 317–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jaworski, B. J., & Kohli, A. K. (1993). Market orientation: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Marketing, 57(3), 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johannisson, B. (2002). Energising entrepreneurship: Ideological tensions in the medium-sized family business. In D. E. Fletcher (Ed.), Understanding the small family business. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Keats, D. M. (2000). Interviewing. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press.Google Scholar
  49. Kepner, E. (1991). The family and the firm: A coevolutionary perspective. Family Business Review, 4(4), 445–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Klein, S. B., Astrachan, J. H., & Smyrnios, K. X. (2005). The F-PEC Scale of family influence: Construction, validation, and further implication for theory. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(3), 321–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kohli, A. K., & Jaworski, B. J. (1990). Market orientation: The construct, research propositions, and managerial implications. Journal of Marketing, 54(2), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lansberg, I. (1999). Succeeding generations: Realising the dreams of families in business. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  53. Lansberg, I., & Astrachan, J. H. (1994). Influence of family relationships on succession planning and training: The importance of mediating factors. Family Business Review, 7(1), 119–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Le Breton-Miller, I., & Miller, D. (2009). Agency vs. stewardship in public family firms: A social embeddedness reconciliation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(5), 1169–1191.Google Scholar
  55. Lee, J. (2006). Impact of family relationships on attitudes of the second generation in family business. Family Business Review, 19(3), 175–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leenders, M., & Waarts, E. (2003). Competitiveness and evolution of family businesses: The role of family and business orientation. European Management Journal, 21(6), 686–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Li, J., & Matlay, H. (2006). Chinese entrepreneurship and small business development: An overview and research agenda. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 13(2), 248–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Liles, P. (1974). Who are the entrepreneurs? MSU business topics 22(1). Reprinted in Gorb, P., Dowell, P., & Wilson, P. (1981). Small Business Perspectives. London: Armstrong.Google Scholar
  59. Lumpkin, G. T., Martin, W., & Vaughn, M. (2008). Family orientation: Individual-level influences on family firm outcomes. Family Business Review, 21(2), 127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mitchell, R. K., Busenitz, L., Lant, T., McDougall, P. P., Morse, E. A., & Smith, J. B. (2002). Toward a theory of entrepreneurial cognition: Rethinking the people side of entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(2), 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moores, K. (2009). Paradigms and theory building in the domain of business families. Family Business Review, 22(2), 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moores, K., & Craig, J. B. (2011). Understanding family enterprises: A book of readings. Robina, QLD: Bond University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Morris, M. J., & Craig, J. B. (2010). Toward a better understanding of family enterprising. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 2(3–4), 308–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Morris, M. H., Williams, R. O., Allen, J. A., & Avila, R. A. (1997). Correlates of success in family business transitions. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(5), 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Naldi, L., Nordqvist, M., & Sjoberg, K. (2007). Entrepreneurial orientation, risk taking, and performance in family firms. Family Business Review, 20(1), 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Olson, P. D., Zuiker, V. S., Danes, S. M., Stafford, K., Heck, R. K. Z., & Duncan, K. A. (2003). The impact of the family and the business in family business sustainability. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 639–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Parsons, T. (1951). The social systems. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  68. Parsons, T. (1977). Social systems and the evolution of action theory. New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  69. Pearson, A. W., Carr, J. C., & Shaw, J. C. (2008). Toward a theory of familiness: A social capital perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(6), 949–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pearson, A. W., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2011). Measurement in family business research: How do we measure up? Family Business Review, 24(4), 287–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Peterson, R. (1985). Raising risk-takers. Metropolitan Toronto Business Journal, 75(7), 30–34.Google Scholar
  72. Pistrui, D., Huang, W., Oksoy, D., Jing, Z., & Welsch, H. (2001). Entrepreneurship in China: Characteristics, attributes, and family forces shaping the emerging private sector. Family Business Review, 14(2), 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Poutziouris, P., & Chittenden, F. (1996). Family business or business families. Leeds: Institution for Small Business Affairs.Google Scholar
  74. Reid, R., Dunn, B., Cromie, S., & Adams, J. (1999). Family orientation in family firms: A model and some empirical evidence. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 6(1), 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rogoff, E. G., & Heck, R. K. Z. (2003). Evolving research in entrepreneurship and family business: Recognizing family as the oxygen that feeds the fire of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 559–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rutherford, M. W., Kuratko, D. F., & Holt, D. T. (2008). Examining the link between “familiness” and performance: Can the F-PEC untangle the family business theory jungle? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(6), 1089–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rutherford, M. W., Muse, L. A., & Oswald, S. L. (2006). A new perspective on the developmental model for family business. Family Business Review, 19(4), 317–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schumpeter, J. A. (1939). Business cycles: A theoretical, historical, and statistical analysis of the capitalist process. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  79. Seymour, K. C. (1993). Inter-generational relationships in the family firm: The effect on leadership succession. Family Business Review, 6(3), 263–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  81. Sharma, P. (2004). An overview of the field of family business studies: Current status and directions for the future. Family Business Review, 17(1), 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sharma, P. (2008). Commentary: Familiness: Capital stocks and flows between family and business. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(6), 971–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sharma, P., Chrisman, J. J., & Chua, J. H. (2003). Succession planning as planned behaviour: Some empirical results. Family Business Review, 16(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sharma, P., Chrisman, J. J., & Gersick, K. E. (2012). 25 years of family business review: Reflections on the past and perspectives for the future. Family Business Review, 25(1), 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shi, H. X., & Dana, L. P. (2013). Market orientation and entrepreneurship in Chinese family business: A socialisation view. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 20(1), 1–16Google Scholar
  86. Simsek, Z., Lubatkin, M. H., & Floyd, S. W. (2003). Inter-firm networks and entrepreneurial behaviour: A structural embeddedness perspective. Journal of Management, 29(3), 427–442.Google Scholar
  87. Stafford, K., Duncan, K. A., Danes, S., & Winter, M. (1999). A research model of sustainable family businesses. Family Business Review, 12(3), 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Taguiri, R. & Davis, J. A. (1982). Bivalent attributes of the family firm. Working Paper. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School. Reprinted 1996, Family Business Review 9(2), 199–208.Google Scholar
  89. Timmons, J. (1999). New venture creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st century. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  90. Tokarczyk, J., Hansen, E., Green, M., & Down, J. (2007). A resource-based view and market orientation theory examination of the role of “familiness” in family business success. Family Business Review, 20(1), 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Venter, E., Boshoff, C., & Maas, G. (2005). The influence of successor-related factors on the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses. Family Business Review, 18(4), 283–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Verhees, F., & Meulenberg, M. (2004). Market orientation, innovativeness, product innovation, and performance in small firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 42(2), 134–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ward, J. L. (1987). Keeping the family business healthy: How to plan for continuing growth profitability and family leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  94. Ward, J. L. (2004). Perpetuating the family business: 50 lessons learned from long-lasting, successful families in business. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wengraf, T. (2001). Qualitative research interviewing: Biographic narrative and semi-structured methods. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  96. Whittaker, D. H., Byosiere, P., Momose, S., Morishita, T., Quince, T., & Higuchi, J. (2009). Comparative entrepreneurship: The UK, Japan, and the shadow of Silicon Valley. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Woods, C. R. (2006). Asking the entrepreneur: An enquiry into entrepreneurial behaviour. Personal Construct Theory and Practice, 3(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  98. Wortman, M. S, Jr. (1994). Theoretical foundations for family-owned business: A conceptual and research-based paradigm. Family Business Review, 7(1), 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zahra, S. A. (2005). Entrepreneurial risk taking in family firms. Family Business Review, 18(1), 23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zahra, S. A., & Dess, G. G. (2001). Entrepreneurship as a field of research: Encouraging dialogue and debate. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 8–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zahra, S. A., Hayton, J. C., & Salvato, C. (2004). Entrepreneurship in family vs. non-family firms: A resource-based analysis of the effect of organizational culture. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(4), 363–381.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New Zealand Asia InstituteThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations