The Design of Consumer Experiences: Managerial Approaches for Service Companies

  • Antonella CarùEmail author
  • Bernard Cova


The notion of experience is not something new for service research and research management. Indeed, various authors have referred to the customer experience in discussing the particular nature of services compared to goods, suggesting that the absence of a physical good could leave room for processes and activities in which the role and experiences of the players involved need to be considered.


Service Experience Service Encounter Customer Experience Service Marketing Consumption Experience 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Arnould, E. J. (2007). Consuming experience, retrospects and prospects. In A. Carù & B. Cova (Eds.), Consuming experience (pp. 185–194). Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Arnould, E., & Price, L. (1993). River magic: Extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(June), 24–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnould, E., Price, L., & Malshe, A. (2006). Toward a cultural resource-based theory of the customer. In R. F. Lusch & S. L. Vargo (Eds.), The service-dominant logic of marketing: Dialog, debate and directions (pp. 320–333). Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.Google Scholar
  4. Arnould, E., Price, L., & Zinkhan, G. (2002). Consumers. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  5. Aubert-Gamet, V., & Cova, B. (1999). Servicescapes: From modern non-places to postmodern common places. Journal of Business Research, 44(1), 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker, J., Grewal, D., & Parasuraman, A. (1994). The influence of store environment on quality inferences and store image. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(4), 328–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bitner, M. J. (1990). Evaluating service encounters: The effects of physical surroundings and employee responses. Journal of Marketing, 54(2), 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bitner, M. J. (1992). Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Journal of Marketing, 56(2), 57–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bitner, M. J. (2000). The servicescape. In T. A. Swartz & D. Iacobucci (Eds.), Handbook of services marketing & management (pp. 37–50). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borghini S., & Carù A. (2008). Co-creating consumption experiences: An endless innovation. In A. Carù, & K. Tollin (Eds.), Strategic market creation (pp. 257–284). Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, S., & Reid, R. (1997). Shoppers on the verge of a nervous breakdown: Chronicle, composition and confabulation in consumer research. In S. Brown & D. Turley (Eds.), Consumer research: Postcards from the edge (pp. 79–149). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Bugg Holloway, B., & Beatty, S. E. (2008). Satisfiers and dissatisfiers in the online environment: A critical incident assessment. Journal of Service Research, 10(4), 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2003). Revisiting consumption experience: A more humble but complete view of the concept. Marketing Theory, 3(2), 259–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2007). Consuming experience. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2008). Small versus big stories in framing consumption experiences. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 11(2), 166–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2012). Experiencing consumption: Appropriating and marketing experiences. In D. Howes (Ed.), Cross-cultural consumption: Global markets, local realities. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Carù, A., Cova, B., & Maltese, L. (2008). Un approccio duale al marketing esperienziale: Divertimento e approfondimento nell’immersione. Mercati e Competitività, 4, 17–40.Google Scholar
  18. Cova, B., & Cova, V. (2002). Tribal marketing: The tribalisation of society and its impact on the conduct of marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 36(5/6), 595–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cova, B., Kozinets, R., & Shankar, A. (2007). Tribes, Inc.: The new world of tribalism. In B. Cova, R. Kozinets, & A. Shankar (Eds.), Consumer tribes (pp. 3–26). Oxford and Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  20. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow. New York: Perseus Book.Google Scholar
  21. Czepiel, J. A., Solomon, M. R., Surprenant, C. F., & Gutman, E. G. (1985). Service encounters: An overview. In J. A. Czepiel, M. R. Solomon, & C. F. Surprenant (Eds.), The service encounter: Managing employee/customer interaction in service businesses (pp. 3–15). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  22. Dholakia, N., & Firat, A. F. (Eds.). (1998). Consuming people: From political economy to theatres of consumption. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Edvardsson, B. (2005). Service quality: Beyond cognitive assessment. Managing Service Quality, 15(2), 127–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Firat, A. F., & Dholakia, N. (1998). Consuming people: From political economy to theaters of consumption. London: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gabbott, M., & Hogg, G. (2001). The role of non-verbal communication in service encounters: A conceptual framework. Journal of Marketing Management, 17(1/2), 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gilmore, J. H., & Pine, B. J. (2007). Authenticity: What consumers really want. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  27. Goodwin, C., & Gremler, D. D. (1996). Friendship over the counter: How social aspects of service encounters influence consumer service loyalty. Advances in Service Marketing and Management, 5, 247–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gould, S. (1991). The self-manipulation of my pervasive, vital energy through product use: An introspective-praxis perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(2), 194–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goulding, C., Shankar, A., & Elliott, R. (2002). Working weeks, rave weekends: Identity fragmentation and the emergence of new communities. Consumption, Markets and Culture, 5(4), 261–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gremler, D. D., & Gwinner, K. P. (2000). Customer-employee rapport in service relationships. Journal of Service Research, 3(1), 82–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grönroos, C. (2000). Creating a relationship dialogue: Communication, interaction and value. Marketing Review, 1(1), 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grove, S. J., Fisk, R. P., & John, J. (2000). Services as theater: Guidelines and implications in handbook of services marketing and management (pp. 21–36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gupta, S., & Vajic, M. (2000). The contextual and dialectical nature of experience. In J. A. Fitzsimmons & M. J. Fitzsimmons (Eds.), New service development. Creating memorable experiences (pp. 33–51). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gwinner, K. P., Gremler, D. D., & Bitner, M. J. (1998). Relational benefits in service industries: The customer’s perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26(2), 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harris, K., Baron, S., & Parker, C. (2000). Understanding the consumer experience: It’s ‘Good to Talk’. Journal of Marketing Management, 16, 11–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Helkkula, A. (2011). Characterising the concept of service experience. Journal of Service Management, 22(3), 367–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Helkkula, A., & Kelleher, C. (2010). Circularity of customer service experience and customer perceived value. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 9(1), 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hetzel P. (2002). Planète conso: Marketing expérientiel et nouveaux univers de consommation. Paris: Editions d’Organisation.Google Scholar
  39. Holbrook, M. B. (1997). Romanticism, introspection and the roots of experiential consumption: Morris the Epicurean. Consumption, Market and Culture, 1(2), 97–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Karsten, K. (2009). Experiential marketing and brand experiences: A conceptual framework. In A. Lindgreen, J. Vanhamme, & M. B. Beverland (Eds.), Memorable customer experiences: A research anthology (pp. 25–44). Aldershot: Gower Publishing.Google Scholar
  41. Kim, Y. K. (2001). Experiential retailing: An interdisciplinary approach to success in domestic and international retailing. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8, 287–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kozinets, R., Sherry, J. F., Deberry-Spence, B., Duhachek, A., Nuttavuthisit, K., & Storm, D. (2002). Themed flagship brand stores in the New Millennium: Theory, practice, prospects. Journal of Retailing, 78(1), 17–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kozinets, R., Sherry, J., Storm, D., Duhachek, A., Nuttavuthisit, K., & Deberry-Spence, D. (2004). Ludic agency and retail spectacle. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(3), 658–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. La Salle, D., & Britton, T. A. (2003). Priceless: Turning ordinary products into extraordinary experiences. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  45. Ligas, M., & Coulter, R. (2001). Changing faces in services relationships: Customers’ roles during dissatisfactory service encounters. Advances in Consumer Research, 28(1), 71–76.Google Scholar
  46. Lindgreen, A., Vanhamme, J., & Beverland, M. B. (Eds.). (2009). Memorable customer experiences: A research anthology. Aldershot: Gower Publishing.Google Scholar
  47. Lovelock, C., & Wirtz, J. (2007). Services marketing: People, technology, strategy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson (Prentice Hall).Google Scholar
  48. Meuter, M. L., Ostrom, A., Roundtree, R., & Bitner, M. J. (2000). Self-service technologies: Understanding customer satisfaction with technology-based service encounters. Journal of Marketing, 87(3), 50–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meyer, C., & Schwager, A. (2007). Understanding customer experience. Harvard Business Review, 85(February), 117–126.Google Scholar
  50. Moisio, R., & Arnould, E. (2005). Extending the dramaturgical framework in marketing: Drama structure, drama interaction and drama content in shopping experiences. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 4(4), 246–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Muñiz, A., & O’Guinn, T. C. (2000). Brand communities. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(March), 412–432.Google Scholar
  52. O’Shaughnessy, J., & O’Shaughnessy, N. J. (2002). Marketing, the consumer society and hedonism. European Journal of Marketing, 36(5/6), 524–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ostrom, A., & Iacobucci, D. (1995). Consumer trade-offs and the evaluation of services. Journal of Marketing, 59(1), 17–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V., & Berry, L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Peñaloza, L., Toulouse, N., & Visconti, L. M. (Eds.). (2012). Marketing management: A cultural approach. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. (1999). The experience economy: Work is theatre and every business a stage. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  57. Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Future of competition: Co-creating unique value with customers. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  58. Price, L. L., & Arnould, E. J. (1999). Commercial friendships: Service provider-client relationships in context. Journal of Marketing, 63(4), 38–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Price, L. L., Arnould, E. J., & Tierney, P. (1995). Going to extremes: Managing service encounters and assessing provider performance. Journal of Marketing, 59(2), 83–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rafaeli, A., Barron, G., & Haber, K. (2002). The effects of queue structures on attitudes. Journal of Service Research, 5(2), 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ramaswamy, V. (2010). It’s all about human experiences… and beyond, to co-creation. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(2), 195–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Reimer, A., & Kuehn, R. (2005). The impact of servicescape on quality perception. European Journal of Marketing, 39(7/8), 785–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ritzer, G. (1999). Enchanting a disenchanted world. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  64. Schmitt, B. H. (1999). Experiential marketing: How to get customers to sense, feel, think, act and relate to your company and brands. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  65. Schneider, D., & Bowen, E. (1995). Winning the service game. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  66. Shostack, G. L. (1977). Breaking free from product marketing. Journal of Marketing, 41(2), 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Solomon, M. R., Surprenant, C., Czepiel, J. A., & Gutman, E. G. (1985). A role theory perspective on dyadic interactions: The service encounter. Journal of Marketing, 49(Winter), 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sundram, D. S., & Webster, C. (2000). The role of nonverbal communication in service encounters. Journal of Services Marketing, 14(5), 378–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tombs, A., & McColl-Kennedy, J. R. (2010). Social and spatial influence of customers on other customers in the social-servicescape. Australasian Marketing Journal, 18(3), 120–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tynan, C., & McKechnie, S. (2009). Experience marketing: A review and reassessment. Journal of Marketing Management, 25(5–6), 501–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Voorhees, C., Baker, J., Bourdeau, B., Brocato, E., & Cronin, J., Jr. (2009). It depends: Moderating the relationships among perceived waiting time, anger, and regret. Journal of Service Research, 12(2), 138–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wagner, P. (2000). Consultation: Developing a comprehensive approach to service delivery. Educational Psychology in Practice, 16(1), 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Xu, J., Shen, H., & Wyer, R. S., Jr. (2011). Does the distance between us matter? Influences of physical proximity to others on consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(3), 418–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zarantonello, L. (2005). Marketing ed esperienza: quali approcci possibili? Micro & Macro Marketing, 14(2), 177–196.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Università BocconiMilanItaly
  2. 2.Kedge Business SchoolMarseilleFrance

Personalised recommendations