Advertisement

Theory and Context

  • Alexander ZahndEmail author
Chapter
  • 677 Downloads
Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)

Abstract

Appendix 10 provides a summary of the major conferences and Summits held with regard to the wider issues of development of the living and environmental conditions of the world’s poor, developing and developed countries.  Section 1.2 discusses the main points recognised, and the lessons learned since Stockholm 1972, highlighting that all the various issues connected with development are complex and thus it is not possible to work with a single overarching theoretical model of sustainable development. Further, it stressed that in order to achieve concurrently, social, political and ecological changes in the real life settings of the end-users of development projects, anyone active in the field must consider much broader approaches than previously applied.

Keywords

Primary Health Care Energy Service Renewable Energy Resource Solar Drier Clean Drinking Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alma Ata (1978). Declaration of Alma-Ata. International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 612 September, 1978. http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Health_Systems_declaration_almaata.pdf. Accessed 31 July 2012.
  2. Benguigui, Y. (1999). Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of ARI at the primary care level, Section IV: Prevention and control (Chap. 16, pp. 313, 323). Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization (1999). http://www.paho.org/English/AD/DPC/CD/AIEPI-1-4.16.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2012.
  3. Cecelski, E. (2002). Enabling equitable access to rural electrification: Current thinking on energy, poverty, and gender. ENERGIA News, Vol. 5, No. 3 (2002). http://www.energia.org/fileadmin/files/media/EN112002_cecelski.pdf. Accessed 21 July 2012.
  4. Cohen, D., Green, M., Block, C., et al. (1991). Reduction of transmission of shigellosis by control of houseflies. Lancet, 337, 993–997. doi:  10.1016/0140-6736(91)92657-N. Accessed 28 July 2012.Google Scholar
  5. Craine, S. (2004). Technical and economic optimization of village electrification systems (pp. 9, 11, 14, 36). MSc English Dissertation, Curtin University, WA.Google Scholar
  6. Curtis, V., Cairncross, S., & Yonli, R. (2000). Domestic hygiene and diarrhoea—Pinpointing the problem. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 5, 22–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DDC (District Development Committee) Humla (2003). Periodic District Development Plan, Humla, First Five Year Plan 2002/20032006/2007. Nepal: Government of Nepal Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  8. Dhakal, (2008) personal communication with authorGoogle Scholar
  9. Emerson, P., Lindsay, S., Walraven, G., et al. (1999). Effect of fly control on trachoma and diarrhoea. Lancet, 353(9162), 1401–1403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ewbank, D., & Gribble,J. (Eds.). (1993). Effects of health programs on child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  11. Ezzati, M., & Kammen, D. (2002). Evaluating the health benefits of transitions in household energy technologies in Kenya. Energy Policy, 30, 815–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gorter, A. C., Sandiford, P., Paun, J., et al. (1998). Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea. International Journal of Epidemiology, 27(6), 1090–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graeff, J., Elder, J., & Booth, E. (1993). Communication for health and behaviour change: A developing country perspective. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Haddix, M. K., & Zahnd, A. (2005). A social and health impact assessment in Chauganphaya and Kholsi, Phase One. Kathmandu: The ISIS Foundation & RIDS-Nepal.Google Scholar
  15. Han, A., Oo, K., Aye, T., & Hlaing, T. (1986). Personal toilet after defecation and the degree of hand contamination according to different methods used. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 89, 237–241.Google Scholar
  16. Hill, A., MacLeod, W., Joof, D., et al. (2000). Decline of mortality in children in rural Gambia: The influence of village-level primary health care. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 5, 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huttly, S., Lanata, C., Gonzales, H., et al. (1994). Observations on handwashing and defecation practices in a shanty town of Lima Peru. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, 12, 14–18.Google Scholar
  18. IEA (2002). Energy and poverty (Chap. 13). World Energy Outlook.Google Scholar
  19. ITDG (n.d.). Reducing exposure to indoor air pollution (p. 14). ITDG Publication. http://www.itdg.org/docs/smoke/itdg%20smoke%20-%20part%203.pdf. Accessed 20 July 2012.
  20. KIRDRC (Karnali Integrated Rural Development and Research Centre) (2002). Governance in the Karnali, an exploratory study. Jumla, Nepal, August 2002.Google Scholar
  21. LaFond, A. (1995). Sustaining primary health care. New York: Save the Children Fund.Google Scholar
  22. Madan, G. (2003). Impacts of rural electrification on poverty and gender in Indonesia. Vol. 1: Facts, analysis, and recommendations (p. XIX). Washington, D.C.: Energy, Poverty and Gender (GEPOGE).Google Scholar
  23. Magnussen, L., Ehiri, J., & Jolly, P. (2004). Comprehensive versus selective primary health care: Lessons for global health policy. Health Affairs, 23(3), 167–176. http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/content/full/23/3/167. Accessed 1 November 2011.
  24. Mills, E., & Johnson, S. (2002). A dramatic opportunity for technology leapfrogging in the developing world. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.Google Scholar
  25. Mills, E. (2002). Why we’re here: The $230-billion global lighting energy bill. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting (pp. 369–385). France: Nice.Google Scholar
  26. NASA (2003). Processing, archiving, and distributing Earth science data. NASA Langley Research Centre. http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/. Accessed 21 July 2012.
  27. Pandey, M. R., et al. (1989a). Impact of a pilot acute respiratory infection (ARI) control programme in a rural community of the hill region of Nepal. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 9, 212–220.Google Scholar
  28. Pandey, M. R., et al. (1989b). Domestic smoke pollution and acute respiratory infections in a rural community of the hill region of Nepal. Environment International, 15(1), 337–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Perpich, J. (Ed.). (1975). Health in community development. International Health Conference, 20–22 October, 1976, National Academy of Sciences, Washington USA (pp. 6–7). http://books.google.com.au/books?id=c20rAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Accessed 19 July 2012.
  30. Rahaman, M., Rahaman, M., Wojtniak, B., & Aziz, K. (1985). Impact of environmental sanitation and crowding on infant mortality in rural Bangladesh. Lancet, 2, 28–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reddy, A.K.N. (2002). Energy technologies and policies for rural development. In T.B. Johansson, & J. Goldemberg (Eds.), Energy for sustainable development: A policy agenda (Chap. 4, pp. 115–136). New York: UNDP.Google Scholar
  32. Rifkin, S., & Walt, G. (1986). Why health improves: Defining the issues concerning ‘comprehensive primary health care’ and ‘selective primary health care’. Social Science and Medicine, 23, 559–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saghir, J. (2005). Energy and poverty: Myths, links, and policy issues. Energy Working Notes, World Bank: Energy and Mining Sector Board, No. 4, May 2005.Google Scholar
  34. Smith, K., Samet, J., Romieu, I., & Bruce, N. (2000). Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower respiratory infections in children. Thorax, 55, 518–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. TEAR Australia (2002). TARGET No. 2, February 2002.Google Scholar
  36. The Economist (27 April 2006). The magnificent seven—How a few simple reforms can lift African villages out of poverty, SAURI, Kenya. Economist 2006. http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/Economist042706.pdf. Accessed 23 July 2012.
  37. UN (1997). Community involvement in primary health care: A study of the process of community motivation and continued participation (p. 9). Economic and Social Council. http://www.cf-hst.net/UNICEF-TEMP/Doc-Repository/doc%5Cdoc362050.PDF. Accessed 23 July 2012.
  38. Unger, J., & Killingsworth, J. (1986). Selective primary health care: A critical review of methods and results. Social Science and Medicine, 22, 1001–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Warwick, H., & Doig, A. (2004). SmokeThe killer in the kitchen. ITDG Publication. ISBN 1 85339 588 9. http://practicalaction.org/docs/smoke/itdg%20smoke%20report.pdf. Accessed 24 July 2012.
  40. WEA (World Energy Assessment) (2000). Energy and the challenge of sustainability. New York: UNDP. http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/environment-energy/sustainable_energy/world_energy_assessmentenergyandthechallengeofsustainability.html. Accessed 24 July 2012.
  41. WHO (2008). Address to the 61st World Health Assembly, 20 May 2008. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/2008/wha61/hafdan_mahler_speech/en/index.html. Accessed 24 July 2012.
  42. Winrock (2004). Household energy, indoor air pollution and health impactsStatus report for Nepal. Kathmandu: Winrock International Nepal. http://www.pciaonline.org/files/Nepal_Household_Energy_and_Health_Overview.pdf. Accessed 24 July 2012.
  43. Zahnd, A. (1998). Firewood consumption survey in Jumla villages, Jumla, Nepal. Unpublished data survey.Google Scholar
  44. Zahnd, A. (2003). Appropriate technology for the poorest mountain communities in the Nepal Himalayas. Sustainable Resources Conference, 1–4 Oct 2003, Boulder, Colorado, USA.Google Scholar
  45. Zahnd, A. (2004a). Case study of a solar photovoltaic elementary lighting system for a poor and remote mountain village in Nepal. MSc RETs Dissertation, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia. http://www.rids-nepal.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=2&Itemid=104 and http://www.rids-nepal.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=3&Itemid=104. Accessed (both) 24 July 2012.
  46. Zahnd, A. (2004b). Community development through sustainable energy use and conversion in harmony with the environment in remote districts of the Central Himalayan Mountains Nepal. Great Himalayas Conference, 12–15 Dec 2004, Kathmandu University, Nepal.Google Scholar
  47. Zahnd, A. (2004c). Handling (managing, administrating, governing) available resources responsibly—Case study of a renewable energy project with a remote and poor mountain village in the Nepal Himalayas. World Renewable Energy Congress VIII, Denver Colorado, USA, 28 Aug–3 Sept 2004. http://www.rids-nepal.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=9&Itemid=104. Accessed 24 July 2012.
  48. Zahnd, A., & Haddix, M.K. (2005). Renewable energy resources for improved, sustainable livelihood: A case study of a holistic community development project with a remote and poor mountain village in the Nepal Himalayas. 6th Asia Pacific Roundtable for Sustainable Consumption & Production (6APRSCP), Melbourne, Australia, 10–12 Oct 2005. http://www.rids-nepal.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=7&Itemid=104. Accessed 24 July 2012.
  49. Zahnd, A., & Malla, A. (2006). High-altitude solar water heater community bathing centre—Renewable energy utilised for a remote and impoverished Himalayan village in Humla Nepal. ANZSES 2006, 13–15 Sept 2006, Canberra, Australia. http://www.rids-nepal.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=11&Itemid=104. Accessed 24 July 2012.
  50. Zahnd, A., & Haddix, M.K. (2007a). Solar PV systems in Himalayan villages: Problems and possible solutions. In Proceedings of the 45th Annual ANZSES Conference, 2–6 Oct 2007, Alice Springs, Australia. http://www.rids-nepal.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=61&Itemid=104. Accessed 24 July 2012.
  51. Zahnd, A., & Haddix, M.K. (2007b). Eclairage sur mesure au Nepal (translation of the English manuscript: Pico-hydro power plant for elementary lighting as part of a holistic community development project in a remote and impoverished Himalayan village in Nepal) (pp. 11–13). TRACÉS 24, Bulletin technique de la Suisse romande, Nov 2007. http://retro.seals.ch/digbib/view?rid=bts-004:2007:133::1549&id=browse&id2=browse5&id3=2. Accessed 24 July 2012.
  52. Zahnd, A., & Haddix, M.K. (2007c). A mountain to climb? How pico-hydro helps rural development in the Himalayas. Renewable Energy World, 11(2), 118–123. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/magazine/archives?tech=&page=1&keywords=A+mountain+to+climb&x=21&y=14. Accessed 24 July 2012.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations