• Alexander ZahndEmail author
Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)


Nepal is a unique country, in regard to its culture, people, geography, ecosystems and climate. It is situated in the lap of the Himalayas, landlocked between China to the north and India to the south, east and west. It was previously cut-off by thick forests and jungles infested with malaria and dangerous animals, and its culture developed in isolation from any foreign influence. The rich resources of Nepal, in particular the abundant water flowing from the Himalayas down to the Indian sub-continent, and its abundant solar energy, are heavily underutilised.


Community Development Human Development Index Gini Coefficient Energy Service Renewable Energy Technology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bista, D. B. (1991). Fatalism and developmentNepal’s struggle for modernization (2nd ed.). 5th Impression, Calcutta: Orient Longman (ISBN 0 86331 245 5, 1994).Google Scholar
  2. Brew-Hammond, A. et al. (2004). Reducing rural poverty through increased access to energy services: a review of the multi-functional platform in Mali. New York: United Nation Development Program, Environment and Energy. Retrieved July 21, 2012, from
  3. Brundtland, G. H. (1987). Our common future, United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), 4th August 1987, ISBN 0-19-282080-X. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved July 30, 2012, from
  4. CIA. (2009). The world factbook, Nepal. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from
  5. CRTN. (2010). Solar parabolic cooker. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from
  6. DDC (District Development Committee) Humla. (2003). Periodic district development plan, Humla, first five year plan 2002/20032006/7, Government of Nepal Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  7. DDC. (2004). District profile of Humla (DPH) (in Nepali language). Government of Nepal, Simikot, Nepal.Google Scholar
  8. Emeriau, S. (2006). Nutritional exploratory mission-Humla and Mugu districts, Nepal. Kathmandu: Action Contre le Faim (ACF).Google Scholar
  9. Fang, C., et al. (2007). FAO/WFP food security assessment mission to Nepal. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Food Programme.Google Scholar
  10. Fournier, A. (2007). Action Contre la Faim: Anthropometric and mortality surveys, Mugu and Humla districts, April 2007, Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  11. Gautam, U. et al. (2005). Nepal: Thermal energy for export. South Asia Journal July–September 2005. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from (November 1, 2011 not available any more).
  12. Goldemberg, J., & Johansson, T. B. (1995). Energy as an instrument for socio-economic development. New York: UNDP/BDP Energy and Environment Group. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from (July 25, 2012 not available any more).
  13. Hagen, T. (1996). Environment and biodiversity seen with the eyes of the farmers. Environment and biodiversity in the context of South Asia (pp. 1–11). Nepal: Ecological Society.Google Scholar
  14. HMG, (2003). Sustainable development agenda for Nepal, His Majesty’s Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission, 2003. Retrieved May 10, 2009, from (November 1, 2011 not available any more).
  15. ICIMOD (The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development). (2003). Table of composite index of poverty, deprivation, socioeconomic, infrastructural development and women empowerment index. Kathmandu, Nepal. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from and
  16. IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development). (n.d.). Rural poverty in Nepal, UN agency. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from
  17. Joshi, C. B., et al. (2002). Development and dissemination of solar drying systems in Nepal: Problems and prospects. International Energy Journal, 3(2), 53–73.Google Scholar
  18. Karki, A., et al. (2002). Micro-hydro power in Nepal: Access to electricity for isolated rural population in the hills and mountains. International Energy Journal, 3(2), 89–97.Google Scholar
  19. KIRDRC (Karnali Integrated Rural Development and Research Centre). (2002). Governance in the Karnali, an exploratory study. August 2002, Jumla, Nepal.Google Scholar
  20. Lekhak, H. D., & Lekhak, B. (2005). Natural resource conservation and sustainable development (2nd ed.). Kathmandu: Kshitiz Publication.Google Scholar
  21. MOA (Ministry of Agriculture). (1997). Progress report 1980/81-1995/96, Lalitpur, Post Harvest Loss Reduction Division, Ministry of Agriculture (MOA).Google Scholar
  22. Morgan, L. (1965). Community development: Observation around the world. Paper presented at the American School Health Association and the Public Health Education Section of the American Public, April 1965, University of North, Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  23. NASA. (2003). Processing, archiving, and distributing earth science data, NASA Langley Research Centre. Retrieved July 21, 2012, from
  24. NEA (Nepal Electricity Authority). (2009a). A year in review-fiscal year 2008/2009, Annual Report, pages 9, 83–84, Kathmandu, Nepal. Retrieved March 23, 2010, from (November 1, 2011 not available any more).Google Scholar
  25. NEA. (2009b). Electricity demand forecast, (load forecast) 20032020, Chap. 4, Table 1. Retrieved March 23, 2010, from (November 1, 2011 not available any more).
  26. NPC (National Planning Commission). (1998). The incidence of poverty by region in Nepal. HMG (His Majesty Government) of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp. 203Google Scholar
  27. NPCS. (2011a). National population and housing census 2011. Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal, June 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2012, from
  28. NPCS. (2011b). Preliminary leaflet 2011. Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal, June 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2012, from
  29. Reddy, A. K. N. (2000). Energy and social issues-world energy assessment: Energy and the challenge of sustainability, Chap. 2, (pp. 39–60). New York: United Nations Development Program (UNDP).Google Scholar
  30. Reddy, A. K. N. (2002). Energy technologies and policies for rural development. In: T. B. Johansson, & J. Goldemberg (Eds.), Energy for sustainable development: A policy agenda, Chap. 4, (pp. 115–136). New York: UNDP.Google Scholar
  31. Regmi, B. R. (2005). Sustainable development of hydro power potential in Nepal. Kathmandu Hydro Power Conference June 2005, Nepal.Google Scholar
  32. Renewable Energy in South Asia. (2002). Renewable energy South Asia, Chap. 1.2.2.
  33. RIDS-Nepal. (2007). Nutrition data survey in Humla. Nepal: Unpublished RIDS-Nepal Nutrition Survey in Upper Humla.Google Scholar
  34. Saghir, J. (2005). Energy and poverty: Myths, links, and policy issues. Energy Working Notes No. 4. Energy and Mining Sector Board of the World Bank Group, Washington, No. 4 May, 2005.Google Scholar
  35. Schumacher, E. F. (1973). Small is beautiful-a study of economics as if people mattered, Blond & Briggs Ltd. ISBN 0 009 922561 1.Google Scholar
  36. Trailokya, N. U. (2003). Education for sustainable development in Nepal: Views and visions. Kathmandu, Nepal. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from
  37. Treese, J. (2007). New approach to improving nutrition in Humla, Nepal. Kathmandu: RIDS–Nepal.Google Scholar
  38. UN. (2011). Human development report 2011-sustainability and equity: A better future for all (p. 129). Retrieved July 24, 2012, from
  39. UNDP. (2006). Human development report 2006-beyond scarcity; Power, poverty and the global water crisis (p. 294), United Nations Development Program, New York, USA. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from
  40. UNICEF. (2006). Situation of women and children in Nepal 2006. Kathmandu: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).Google Scholar
  41. UNICEF. (1998). The state of the world’s children 1998, UNICEF, Focus on Nutrition, Oxford press UK. Accessed July 24, 2012
  42. UNICEF. (2010). Child poverty and disparities in Nepal. Nepal Report 2010 Overview, UNICEF, Kathmandu, Nepal. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from
  43. USAID. (2003). Regional hydro power resources: Summary and analysis of selected SARI data, USAID-SARI/Energy Program, Kathmandu, Nepal, November 2003. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from
  44. Warnock, J. B. (1989). The hydro resources of Nepal. U.K.: Water Power and Dam Construction.Google Scholar
  45. WEA (World Energy Assessment). (2000). Energy and the challenge of sustainability, UNDP, New York, USA. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from
  46. WECS (Water, Energy Commission Secretariat). (1999a). WECS bulletin no. 10. Kathmandu: HMG of Nepal.Google Scholar
  47. WECS. (1999). Annual REPORT 1999. Kathmandu: HMG of Nepal.Google Scholar
  48. WHO. (2005). Distribution of health facilities in Nepal. Nepal: World Health Organisation Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  49. Zahnd, Alexander. (2004). Case study of a solar photovoltaic elementary lighting system for a poor and remote mountain village in Nepal, MSc RETs Dissertation, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from and

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringUniversity of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations