About Experience and Emergence - A Framework for Decentralized Interactive Play Environments

  • Pepijn Rijnbout
  • Linda de Valk
  • Arnold Vermeeren
  • Tilde Bekker
  • Mark de Graaf
  • Ben Schouten
  • Berry Eggen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 124)


Play is an unpredictable and fascinating activity. Its qualities can serve as an inspiration for design. In designing for play, we focus on play environments with players and multiple interactive objects. The current understanding of how to design these objects and interaction opportunities to create meaningful interactions and engaging user experiences is limited. In this paper we introduce a framework focusing on the development of decentralized interactive play environments for emergent play. This framework combines knowledge from different fields including play, user experience, emergent behavior and interactions. Two case studies demonstrate its use as a tool for analysis.


Framework open-ended play emergence user experience interactions 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bekker, T., Sturm, J., Eggen, B.: Designing playful interactions for social interaction and physical play. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 14(5), 385–396 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deen, M., Schouten, B.A.M.: Let’s start playing games! How games can become more about playing and less about complying. In: Fun & Games (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    van Essen, H., Rijnbout, P., de Graaf, M.: A design approach to decentralized interactive environments. In: Nijholt, A., Reidsma, D., Hondorp, H. (eds.) INTETAIN 2009. LNICST, vol. 9, pp. 56–67. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fromm, J.: Types and forms of emergence, Kassel University (2005),
  5. 5.
    Fromm, J.: On engineering and emergence, Kassel University (2006),
  6. 6.
    Gaver, W., Beaver, J., Benford, S.: Ambiguity as a resource for design. In: SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 233–240. ACM Press (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gordon, D.M.: The organization of work in social insect colonies. Nature 380, 121–124 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hassenzahl, M.: User Experience and Experience Design. In: Soegaard, M., Dam, R.F. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction. The Interaction Design Foundation, Aarhus (2011),
  9. 9.
    Huizinga, J.: Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture. Beacon Press, Boston (1955)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hunicke, R., LeBlanc, M., Zubek, R.: MDA: A formal approach to game design and game research. In: AAAI Workshop on Challenges in Game. AAAI Press (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Iguchi, K., Inakage, M.: Morel: Remotely launchable outdoor playthings. In: SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment technology. ACM Press (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Korhonen, H., Montola, M., Arrasvuori, J.: Understanding playful experiences through digital games. In: 4th International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces, pp. 274–285 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lockton, D., Harrison, D., Stanton, N.: Design with intent: Persuasive technology in a wider context. In: Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Hasle, P., Harjumaa, M., Segerståhl, K., Øhrstrøm, P. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5033, pp. 274–278. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Norman, D.: The Design of Everyday Things. Basic Books, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Resnick, M.: Turtles, Termites and Traffic Jams: Explorations in Massively Parallel Microworlds. MIT Press, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reynolds, C.W.: Flocks, herds, and schools: a distributed behavioral model. In: 14th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 25–34. ACM Press (1987)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rijnbout, P., de Valk, L., de Graaf, M., Bekker, T., Schouten, B., Eggen, B.: i-PE: A decentralized approach for designing adaptive and persuasive intelligent play environments. In: Wichert, R., Van Laerhoven, K., Gelissen, J. (eds.) AmI 2011. CCIS, vol. 277, pp. 238–244. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rozendaal, M., Vermeeren, A., Bekker, T., de Ridder, H.: A research framework for playful persuasion based on psychological needs and bodily interaction. In: Salah, A.A., Lepri, B. (eds.) HBU 2011. LNCS, vol. 7065, pp. 116–123. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sengers, P., Gaver, B.: Staying open to interpretation: engaging multiple meanings in design and evaluation. In: 6th Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, pp. 99–108. ACM Press (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Seitinger, S., Sylvan, E., Zuckerman, O., Popovic, M., Zuckerman, O.: A new playground experience: Going digital? In: Ext. Abstracts CHI 2006, pp. 303–308. ACM Press (2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sheldon, K.M., Kasser, T., Elliot, A.J., Kim, Y.: What is satisfying about satisfying events? Testing 10 candidate psychological needs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80(2), 325–339 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Suchman, L.: Plans and situated actions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1987)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tetteroo, D., Reidsma, D., van Dijk, B., Nijholt, A.: Design of an interactive playground based on traditional children’s play. In: Camurri, A., Costa, C. (eds.) INTETAIN 2011. LNICST, vol. 78, pp. 129–138. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    de Valk, L., Rijnbout, P., Bekker, T., Eggen, B., de Graaf, M., Schouten, B.: Designing for playful experiences in open-ended intelligent play environments. In: IADIS International Conference Games and Entertainment Technologies, pp. 3–10 (2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zivanovic, A.: The development of a cybernetic sculptor: Edward Ihnatowicz and the Senster. In: 5th Conference on Creativity & Cognition, pp. 102–108. ACM Press (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pepijn Rijnbout
    • 1
  • Linda de Valk
    • 1
  • Arnold Vermeeren
    • 2
  • Tilde Bekker
    • 1
  • Mark de Graaf
    • 1
  • Ben Schouten
    • 1
  • Berry Eggen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial DesignEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Dept. of Industrial Design EngineeringTU DelftDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations