Advertisement

Improvement in Genetic Algorithm with Genetic Operator Combination (GOC) and Immigrant Strategies for Multicast Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

  • P. Karthikeyan
  • Subramanian Baskar
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8297)

Abstract

In this paper, an improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed for solving multicast routing problem by optimizing combined objectives of network lifetime and delay. This algorithm employs Genetic Operator combination (GOC) and immigrant strategies. The GOC contains modified topology crossover, node and energy mutations. Immigrant strategies are the specific replacement operators designed for dynamic optimization problems and it is naturally suited for multicast routing in ad hoc networks. The random immigrant with random replacement, random immigrant with worst replacement, elitism based immigrant and hybrid immigrant strategies are combined with GOC individually, and formed four different algorithms. The performance of these algorithms is evaluated in different size networks through simulation. The results of the proposed algorithms are compared with other existing algorithms using nonparametric statistical tests with average ranking. These test results endorse that the proposed algorithms improve the performance of GA in solving multicast routing problems effectively.

Keywords

Ad Hoc Networks Multicast Routing Genetic Operator Combinations (GOCs) Immigrant Strategies 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kong, J.: Building underwater ad-hoc networks and sensor networks for large scale real-time aquatic applications. In: Int. Conf. Milit. Comm., Atlantic City, NJ (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sesay, S., Yang, Z., He, J.: A survey on mobile ad hoc wireless network. InfoTech, 168–175 (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Oliveira, C., Pardalos, P.: A survey of combinatorial optimization problems in multicast routing. Comp. and Oper. Rese. 32, 1953–1981 (2005)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang, B., Hou, J.: A survey on multicast routing and its QoS extensions: problems, algorithms, and protocols. IEEE Trans. Net. 14, 22–36 (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang, B., Gupta, S.K.S.: On maximizing lifetime of multicast trees in wireless ad hoc networks. In: Intl. Conf. Para. Proc., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haghighat, A.T., Faez, K., Dehghan, M.: GA-based heuristic algorithms for QoS based multicast routing. Know Bas. Sys. 16, 305–312 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baumann, R., Heimlicher, S., Strasser, M., Weibel, A.: A survey on routing metrics. TIK Report, Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory, ETH-Zentrum, Switzerland (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sateesh Kumar, P., Ramachandram, S.: Genetic zone routing protocol. Theo. and Appl. Info. Tech. 4, 789–794 (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eiben, A.E., Smith, J.E.: Introduction to Evolutionary computing Genetic Algorithms. Springer (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sun, B., Pi, S., Gui, C., Zeng, Y., Yan, B., Wang, W., Qin, Q.: Multiple constraints QoS multicast routing optimization algorithm in MANET based on GA. Progress in Nat. Sci. 18, 331–336 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koyama, A., Nishie, T., Arai, J., Barolli, L.: A GA-based QoS multicast routing algorithm for large-scale networks. Int. J. of High. Perf. Comp. & Net. 5, 381–387 (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Karthikeyan, P., Baskar, S., Alphones, A.: Improved genetic algorithm using different genetic operator combinations (GOCs) for multicast routing in ad hoc networks. Soft. Comput. (2012), doi:10.1007/s00500-012-0976-4Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yen, Y.S., Chao, H.C., Chang, R.S., Vasilakos, A.: Flooding-limited and multi-constrained QoS multicast routing based on the genetic algorithm for MANETs. Math. and Comp. Mode 53, 2238–2250 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yen, Y.S., Chan, Y.K., Chao, H.C., Park, J.H.: A genetic algorithm for energy-efficient based multicast routing on MANETs. Comp. Comm. 31, 2632–2641 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cao, Q., Zhou, J., Li, C., Huang, R.: A genetic algorithm based on extended sequence and topology encoding for the multicast protocol in two-tiered WSN. Exp. Sys. with Appl. 37, 1684–1695 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chiang, T.C., Liu, C.H., Huang, Y.M.: A near-optimal multicast scheme for mobile ad hoc networks using a hybrid genetic algorithm. Exp. Sys. with Appl. 33, 734–742 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jain, S., Sharma, J.D.: QoS constraints multicast routing for residual bandwidth optimization using evolutionary algorithm. Int. J. Comp. Theo. and Eng. 3, 211–216 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tinos, R., Yang, S.: A self-organizing random immigrants genetic algorithm for dynamic optimization problems. Genet. Progrom. Evol. Mach. 8(3), 255–286 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang, S., Tinos, R.: A hybrid immigrants scheme for genetic algorithms in dynamic environments. Int. J. Automat. Comput. 4(3), 243–254 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Derrac, J., Garcia, S., Molina, D., Herrera, F.: A practical tutorial on the use of nonparametric statistical tests as a methodology for comparing evolutionary and swarm intelligence algorithms. Swarm and Evol. Comp. 1, 3–18 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deb, K.: An efficient constraint-handling method for genetic algorithms. Comp. Meth. in Appl. Mech. and Eng. 186, 311–338 (2000)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goldberg, D.E.: Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning. Addison Wesley, Boston (1989)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Salama, H.F., Reeves, D.S., Viniotis, Y.: Evaluation of multicast routing algorithms for real-time communication on high-speed networks. IEEE J. on Sel. Ar. in Comm. 15, 332–345 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Karthikeyan
    • 1
  • Subramanian Baskar
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Information TechnologyThiagarajar College of EngineeringMaduraiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringThiagarajar College of EngineeringMaduraiIndia

Personalised recommendations