Advertisement

Legacies of Occupation

  • Gillian CarrEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Contributions To Global Historical Archaeology book series (CGHA, volume 40)

Abstract

How can we understand and compare the heritage, memories and landscapes of former military occupation across Europe and further afield? This chapter introduces the concept of the occupationscape, which is used to describe the fluctuating cultural landscape of Occupation, where specific significant sites of memory have been selected for survival and heritage incorporation by members of the local population to speak for them, their identity and their memory of Occupation. As an important part of this, I examine the potentially cyclical transition of tangible and intangible legacies of the German Occupation into heritage, which has only happened or can only happen with intervention, and which can be or have been reversed with neglect. While a public or official occupationscape can incorporate only heritage, other legacies of Occupation may be neglected until a later date when they may be turned into heritage or else eventually erased altogether from the landscape. Private occupationscapes, on the other hand, need no such public endorsement or memorialisation and can incorporate both existing and erased legacies. The concept of the occupationscape allows cultural landscapes of military Occupation in Europe and further afield to be directly and more clearly compared.

Keywords

Channel Islands Occupation Memory Legacy Heritage Occupationscape War narrative lieux de mémoire lieux d’oubli 

References

  1. Ashplant, T. G., Dawson, G., & Roper, M. (Eds.). (2000). The politics of war memory and commemoration. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, D. (Ed.). (2006). Memory, trauma and world politics: Reflections on the relationship between past and present. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. Berger, S. (2010). Remembering the Second World War in Western Europe, 1945–2005. In M. Pakier & B. Stråth (Eds.), A European memory? Contested histories and politics of remembrance (pp. 119–136). New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  4. Cohen, F. (2000). The Jews is the Channel Islands during the German Occupation, 1940–1945. Jersey: Jersey Heritage Trust.Google Scholar
  5. Connelly, M. (2004). We can take it! Britain and the memory of the Second World War. Harlow: Longman/Pearson.Google Scholar
  6. Evans, M., & Lunn, K. (Eds.). (1997). War and memory in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  7. Farmar, S. (2000). Martyred village: Commemorating the 1944 massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane. London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  8. Jarausch, K. H., & Lindenberger, T. (Eds.). (2007). Conflicted memories: Europeanizing contemporary histories. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  9. Lagrou, P. (2000). The legacy of Nazi Occupation: Patriotic memory and national recovery in Western Europe, 1945–1965. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Lebow, N., Kansteiner, W., & Fogu, C. (Eds.). (2006). The politics of memory in postwar Europe. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Legg, S. (2005a). Contesting and surviving memory: Space, nation and nostalgia in Les Lieux de Mémoire. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 23, 481–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Legg, S. (2005b). Sites of counter-memory: The refusal to forget and the nationalist struggle in colonial Delhi. Historical Geography, 33, 180–201.Google Scholar
  13. Ludi, R. (2006). What’s so special about Switzerland? Wartime memory as a national ideology. In N. Lebow, W. Kansteiner, & C. Fogu (Eds.), The politics of memory in postwar Europe (pp. 210–248). Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Mière, J. (2004). Never to be forgotten. Jersey: Channel Island Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Müller, J. W. (2002). Memory and power in post-war Europe: Studies in the presence of the past. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Noakes, L. (1997). Making histories: Experiencing the blitz in London’s museum in the 1990s’. In M. Evans & K. Lunn (Eds.), War and memory in the Twentieth Century (pp. 89–104). Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  17. Nora, P. (1989). Between memory and history: Les Lieux de Memoire. Representations, 26, 7–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nora, P. (1996a) From Lieux de mémoire to realms of memory. In D. Kritzman (Ed.), Realms of memory: Rethinking the French past. Volume I: Conflicts and divisions (pp. xiv–xxiv). New York: Columbia University Press (English language edition with a foreword by L. D. Kritzman, trans. Arthur Goldhammer).Google Scholar
  19. Nora, P. (1996b) General introduction: Between memory and history. In D. Kritzman (Ed.), Realms of memory: Rethinking the French past. volume I: Conflicts and divisions (pp. 1–20). New York: Columbia University Press (English language edition with a foreword by L. D. Kritzman, trans. Arthur Goldhammer).Google Scholar
  20. Nora, P. (1997) Realms of memory: Rethinking the French past. Volume 2: Traditions. New York: Columbia University Press (English language edition with a foreword by L. D. Kritzman, trans. Arthur Goldhammer).Google Scholar
  21. Nora, P. (ed.) (1984–1992). Les Lieux de Mémoire. Paris: Gallimard (7 vols.).Google Scholar
  22. Pakier, M., & Stråth, B. (Eds.). (2010). A European memory? Contested histories and politics of remembrance. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  23. Portelli, A. (2003). The massacre at the Fosse Ardeatine: History, myth, ritual and symbol. In K. Hodgkin & S. Radstone (Eds.), Contested pasts: The politics of memory (pp. 29–40). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Rousso, H. (1991). The Vichy syndrome: History and memory in France since 1944. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Sanders, P. (2004). The ultimate sacrifice. Jersey: Jersey Heritage Trust.Google Scholar
  26. Saunders, N. J. (2003). Trench art: Materialities and memories of war. Oxford and New York: Berg.Google Scholar
  27. Saunders, N. J. (2004). Matters of conflict: Material culture, memory and the First World War. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Saunders, N. J. (2007). Killing time: Archaeology and the First World War. Stroud: Sutton Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. Saunders, N. J., & Cornish, P. (2009). Contested objects: Material memories of the Great War. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Tai, H.-T. H. (2001). Remembered realms: Pierre Nora and French national memory. The American Historical Review, 106(3), 906–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tec, N. (2008). Defiance: The Bielski Partisans. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Tumarkin, M. (2005) Traumascapes: The power and fate of places transformed by tragedy. Victoria: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Winter, J. (1995). Sites of memory, sites of mourning: The great war in European cultural history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Wood, N. (1999). Vectors of memory: Legacies of trauma in post-war Europe. Oxford and New York: Berg.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.St. Catharine’s CollegeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations