Low-Cost Hybrid Systems of Renewable Energy

  • Petronio VieiraJr.Email author
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


This chapter is focused on research and development of low-cost technologies for attending small and medium energetic demands. The results of such development are related to the use of hybrid systems combining different sources of renewable energy (RE). To obtain the smallest cost of a system, it is necessary to obtain the smallest cost of each one of their parts and a better control strategy integrating the operation of these parts. Besides, it is necessary to obtain the best project than it relates the best cost so much benefit in relation to installation as for operation and maintenance. In this chapter, the constituent elements of a hybrid system will be presented initially, followed by a presentation of the technological progresses of these elements. Later the control strategies will be explained to obtain the maximum efficiency of these elements and connection arrangements among them. Finally, project methodologies will be presented for the optimization of the sizing of a project of hybrid system, and they will be described through examples of their application.


Wind Turbine Energy Storage System Maximum Power Point Tracking Boost Converter Doubly Feed Induction Generator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Abdeddaim S, Betka A (2013) Optimal tracking and robust power control of the DFIG wind turbine. Electr Power Energy Syst 49:234–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abdullah MO, Yung VC, Anyi M, Othman AK, Hamid KB, Tarawe J (2010) Review and comparison study of hybrid diesel/solar/hydro/fuel cell energy schemes for a rural ICT Telecenter. Energy 35:639–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aki H (2010) Independent hybrid renewable energy systems: example applications around the world. IEEE Power Energy Soc Gen Meet 2010:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bajpai P, Dash V (2012) Hybrid Renewable energy systems for power generation in stand-alone application: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16:2926–2939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barton JP, Infield DG (2004) Energy storage and its use with intermittent renewable energy. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 19(2):441–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belhadji L, Bachan S, Munteanu I, Rumeau A, Roye D (2013) Adaptive MPPT applied to variable-speed microhydropower plant. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 28(1):34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bianconi E, Calvente J, Giral R, Mamarelis E, Petrone G, Ramos-Paja CA, Spagnuolo G, Vitelli M (2013) Perturb and Observe MPPT algorithm with a current controller based on the sliding mode. Electr Power Energy Syst 44:346–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brent AC, Rogers DE (2010) Renewable rural electrification: Sustainability assessment of mini-hybrid off-grid technological systems in the African context. Renewable Energy 35:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carrasco JM, Garcia Franquelo L, Bialasiewicz JT, Galván E, Portillo Guisado RC, Martín Prats MA, León JI, Moreno-Alfonso N (2006) Power-electronic systems for the grid integration of renewable energy sources: a survey. IEEE Trans Industr Electron 53(4):1002–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Choi UM, Lee KB, Blaabjerg F (2012) Power electronics for renewable energy systems: wind turbine and photovoltaic systems. In: international conference on renewable energy research and applications (ICRERA), Nagasaki, Japan, 11–14 Nov 2012Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gyawali N, Ohsawa Y (2010) Integrating fuel cell/electrolyzer/ultracapacitor system into a stand-alone microhydro plant. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 25(4):1092–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hemmati M, Amjady N, Ehsan M (2014) System modeling and optimization for islanded micro-grid using multi-cross learning-based chaotic differential evolution algorithm. Electr Power Energy Syst 56:349–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Houssamo I, Locment F, Sechilariu M (2013) Experimental analysis of impact of MPPT methods on energy efficiency for photovoltaic power systems. Electr Power Energy Syst 46:98–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hu X, Tseng KJ, Srinivasan M (2011) Optimization of battery energy storage system with super-capacitor for renewable energy applications. In: 8th international conference on power electronics–ECCE Asia, p 1552, The Shilla Jeju, Korea, 30 May–3 June 2011Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Irmak E, Güler N (2013) Application of a high efficient voltage regulation system with MPPT algorithm. Electr Power Energy Syst 44:703–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kannan VK, Rengarajan N (2014) Investigating the performance of photovoltaic based DSTATCOM using I cosϕ algorithm. Electr Power Energy Syst 54:376–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin CH (2013) Recurrent modified Elman neural network control of PM synchronous generator system using wind turbine emulator of PM synchronous servo motor drive. Electr Power Energy Syst 52:143–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ling Y, Cai X (2013) Rotor current dynamics of doubly fed induction generators during grid voltage dip and rise. Electr Power Energy Syst 44:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morck O, Thomsen KE, Rose J (2012) The EU CONCERTO project Class 1—demonstrating cost-effective low-energy buildings—recent results with special focus on comparison of calculated and measured energy performance of Danish buildings. Appl Energy 97:319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Phankong N, Yuktanon N, Bhumkittipich K (2013) Three-level back-to-back converter simulation for wind turbine energy source. Energy Procedia 34:449–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Poullikkas A (2007) Implementation of distributed generation technologies in isolated power systems. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 11:30–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ribeiro LA, Saavedra OR, Lima SL, de Matos JG, Bonan G (2012) Making isolated renewable energy systems more reliable. Renewable Energy 45:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rodriguez M, Stahl G, Corradiniand L, Maksimovic D (2013) Smart DC power management system based on software-configurable power modules. IEEE Trans Power Electron 28(4):1571–1586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saravanan S, Thangavel S (2014) Instantaneous reference current scheme based power management system for a solar/wind/fuel cell fed hybrid power supply. Electr Power Energy Syst 55:155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    She Y, She X, Baran ME (2011) Universal tracking control of wind conversion system for purpose of maximum power acquisition under hierarchical control structure. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 26(3):766–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shinde SM, Patil KD, Khairnar ss, Gandhare Wz (2009) The role of power electronics in renewable energy systems research and development. In: 2nd international conference on emerging trends in engineering and technology, ICETET-09, p 726Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Simoes MG, Uriarte CS, Chakraborty S, Farret FA (2006) Cost considerations on fuel cell, 41st IAS annual meeting. In: Conference record of the industry applications conference 2006. vol 5. p 2169Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Siraki AG, Curry N, Pillay P, Williamson SS (2009) Power electronics intensive solutions for integrated urban building renewable energy systems. In: Industrial electronics, 2009. IECON’09. 35th annual conference of IEEE, p 3998Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sun D, Ge B, Rub HA, Peng FZ, de Almeida AT (2011) Power flow control for quasi-Z source inverter with battery based PV power generation system. In: IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE), p 1051, 17–22 Sept 2011Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Taib N, Metidji B, Rekioua T (2013) Performance and efficiency control enhancement of wind power generation system based on DFIG using three-level sparse matrix converter. Electr Power Energy Syst 53:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tan X, Li Q, Wang H (2013) Advances and trends of energy storage technology in microgrid. Electr Power Energy Syst 44:179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tang Y, HaiboHe PJ, Qin C, Wu F (2013) Optimized control of DFIG-based wind generation using sensitivity analysis and particle swarm optimization. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 4(1):509–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thounthong P, Tricoli P, Davat B (2014) Performance investigation of linear and nonlinear controls for a fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid power plant. Electr Power Energy Syst 54:454–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ting CC, Yeh LY (2014) Developing the full-field wind electric generator. Electr Power Energy Syst 55:420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Trifkovic M, Sheikhzadeh M, Nigim K, Daoutidis P (2014) Modeling and control of a renewable hybrid energy system with hydrogen storage. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 22(1):169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tucker S, Negnevitsky M (2011) Renewable energy micro-grid power system for isolated communities. In: 21st Australasian Universities power engineering conference (AUPEC) 2011, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ugranli F, Karatepe E (2013) Optimal wind turbine sizing to minimize energy loss. Electr Power Energy Syst 53:656–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang F, Thanapalan K, Procter A, Carr S, Maddy J, Premier G (2013) Power management control for off-grid solar hydrogen production and utilisation system. Int J Hydrogen Energy 38:4334–4341CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal University of ParáBelémBrazil

Personalised recommendations