Knowledge Is Justifiable True Information

  • Jaakko HintikkaEmail author
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 369)


According to an attempted definition of knowledge, knowledge is justified true belief. But a belief is ultimately justified only by its being true. Hence instead of belief we should speak information. Now, for an item of information p to be known to be true, it does not suffice for the knower to be aware that there exists a conclusive method of verification. One has to know some particular method that conclusively verifies p. Since Skolem functions can be thought of as strategies of verification, this is a distinction in the order of the knowledge operators and existence operators over such functions, between knowing that there is some conclusive method of verification and there being a known conclusive method of verification, only the second of which qualifies as knowledge.


Game-theoretical semantics Independence-friendly logic Information Justification Skolem functions 

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations