Results and Discussion: Part A
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The widespread rural electrification during the 1970s and 1980s attracted tubewell technology, which boosted the area’s agricultural economy. However, groundwater pumping soon became over-pumping, causing deterioration of the aquifer. Since groundwater has historically been the central source of irrigation here, its deterioration affected agriculture in several ways. This chapter examines land use dynamics of tubewell agriculture, first through field survey data results of which are then validated by satellite images. The phrase ‘agricultural development’ means growth (new additions) and modification (re-alignment) of an agricultural system. Therefore, this chapter incorporates horizontal (expansion) and vertical (intensification) growth trends in agriculture, cropping pattern alterations, and the economic performance of farming in the face of high irrigation costs. The spreading desertification process has been highlighted both by the field survey results and by satellite image classification. Since farmers are the key stakeholders in the agricultural enterprise, their socio-economic features are unveiled first of all.