Gamification of Community Policing: SpamCombat

  • Alton Y. K. Chua
  • Snehasish Banerjee
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8210)


The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, it seeks to introduce the conceptual prototype of SpamCombat, a Web application that helps combat spam through gamification of community policing. Second, it attempts to evaluate SpamCombat by identifying factors that can potentially drive users’ behavioral intention to adopt. A questionnaire seeking quantitative and qualitative responses was administered to 120 participants. The results indicate that behavioral intention to adopt SpamCombat is generally promising. Most participants appreciated the novelty of SpamCombat in supporting community policing to promote a spam-free cyber space. However, participants felt that using SpamCombat could be time-consuming.


gamification community policing spam behavioral intention 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    van den Hooff, B., de Ridder, J.A.: Knowledge sharing in context: The influence of organizational commitment, communication climate and CMC use on knowledge sharing. Journal of Knowledge Management 8(6), 117–130 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gill, M.: Crime at work: Studies in security and crime prevention. Perpetuity Press, Leicester (1994)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Williams, M.: Policing and cybersociety: The maturation of regulation within an online community. Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy 17(1), 59–82 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wanas, N., Magdy, A., Ashour, H.: Using automatic keyword extraction to detect off-topic posts in online discussion boards. Paper presented at Proceedings of Content Analysis for Web 2.0, Madrid, Spain (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hsu, C.L., Lu, H.P.: Why do people play on-line game? An extended TAM with social influence and flow experience. Information & Management 41(7), 853–868 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guo, Y., Barnes, S.: Why people buy virtual items in virtual worlds with real money. The Data Base for Advances in Information Systems 38(4), 70–76 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Von Ahn, L., Dabbish, L.: Designing games with a purpose. Communications of the ACM 51(8), 58–67 (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Nacke, L., O’Hara, K., Dixon, D.: Gamification: Using game-design elements in non-gaming contexts. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 2425–2428. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prestopnik, N., Crowston, K.: Exploring collective intelligence games with design science: A citizen science design case. Paper presented at the ACM Group Conference (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ntoulas, A., Najork, M., Manasse, M., Fetterly, D.: Detecting spam web pages through content analysis. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on World Wide Web, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 83–92 (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ortega, F.J., Macdonald, C., Troyano, J.A., Cruz, F.: Spam detection with a content-based random-walk algorithm. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Search and Mining User-generated Contents, Toronto, Canada, pp. 45–52 (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhou, B., Pei, J.: Link spam target detection using page farms. ACM. ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data 3(3), 13–50 (2009)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cheng, Z., Gao, B., Sun, C., Jiang, Y., Liu, T.Y.: Let web spammers expose themselves. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, Hong Kong, pp. 525–534 (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jindal, N., Liu, B.: Review spam detection. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 1189–1190 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hew, K.F., Hara, N.: Knowledge sharing in online environments: A qualitative case study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 58(14), 2310–2324 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wall, D.S.: Catching cyber criminals: Policing the Internet. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology 12(2), 201–218 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scheffler, S.: Angels of cyber space: The CyberAngels cyber crime unit is watching over victims of internet crimes. Law Enforcement Technology 33(4), 32–35 (2006)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sauvé, L., Renaud, L., Kaufman, D., Marquis, J.S.: Distinguishing between games and simulations: A systematic review. Educational Technology & Society 10(3), 247–256 (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Laine, T.H., Islas, S.C.A., Joy, M., Sutinen, E.: Critical factors for technology integration in game-based pervasive learning spaces. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies 3(4), 294–306 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perry, D., DeMaria, R.: David Perry on game design. Charles River Media, Hingham Massachusetts (1999)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prensky, M.: Digital Game-Based Learning. McGraw-Hill, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Garris, R., Ahlers, R., Driskell, J.E.: Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming 33(4), 441–467 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wagner, E.D.: In support of a functional definition of interaction. American Journal of Distance Education 8(2), 6–29 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Squire, K.: Video games in education. International Journal of Intelligent Simulations and Gaming 2(1), 49–62 (2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hinske, S., Lampe, M., Magerkurth, C., Röcker, C.: Classifying pervasive games: on pervasive computing and mixed reality. In: Concepts and Technologies for Pervasive Games - A Reader for Pervasive Gaming Research, vol. 1. Shaker Verlag, Aachen (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lopez-Nicolas, C., Molina-Castillo, F.J., Bouwman, H.: An assessment of advanced mobile services acceptance: Contributions from TAM and diffusion theory models. Information & Management 45(6), 359–364 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sheppard, B.H., Hartwick, J., Warshaw, P.R.: The theory of reasoned action: A meta-analysis of past research with recommendations for modifications and future research. Journal of Consumer Research 15(3), 325–343 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ajzen, I.: The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50(2), 179–211 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Venkatesh, V., Davis, F.D.: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science 46(2), 186–204 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Davis, F.D.: Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly 13(3), 319–339 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim, Y., Oh, S., Lee, H.: What makes people experience flow? Social characteristics of online games. International Journal of Advanced Media & Communication 1(1), 76–92 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee, S., Koubeka, R.J.: The Impact of Cognitive Style on User Preference Based on Usability and Aesthetics for Computer-Based Systems. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 27(11), 1083–1114 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wu, J.H., Wang, S.C.: What drives mobile commerce? An empirical evaluation of the revised technology acceptance model. Information & Management 42(5), 719–729 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chiu, C.M., Wang, E.T.G.: Understanding web-based learning continuance intention: The role of subjective task value. Information & Management 45(3), 194–201 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nov, O., Ye, C.: Resistance to change and the adoption of digital libraries: An integrative model. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60(8), 1702–1708 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Marchewka, J.T., Liu, C., Kostiwa, K.: An application of the UTAUT model for understanding student perceptions using course management software. Communications of the IIMA 7(2), 93–104 (2007)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G., Davis, G.B., Davis, F.D.: User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly 27(3), 425–478 (2003)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Charles, D., Charles, T., McNeill, M., Bustard, D., Black, M.: Game-based feedback for educational multi-user virtual environments. British Journal of Educational Technology 42(4), 638–654 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Squire, K.: Changing the game: What happens when video games enter the classroom. Innovate: Journal of Online Education 1(6) (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alton Y. K. Chua
    • 1
  • Snehasish Banerjee
    • 1
  1. 1.Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and InformationNanyang Technological UniversitySingapore

Personalised recommendations