The Role of the Academe in Sports Integrity: The Objectives and Shape of a Sports Integrity Training Course

  • Lydia SegalEmail author


Reformers are issuing multiple proposals to boost integrity in sports. So far, the potential contributions of the academe to this effort have been largely glossed over. Yet the academe is a unique source of expertise in teaching ethics and can reach many more stakeholders than athletes, which is all most existing sports integrity training programs do. This chapter outlines the ways in which the academe can enhance sports integrity. It offers ideas on the possible goals and shapes of a sports integrity course and discusses ways in which to increase the ethical awareness of those involved in sports, elevate their level of moral reasoning, and give them the skills to navigate the situational pressures encountered in the world of sports.


Moral Reasoning Moral Development Business Student Ethic Training Moral Awareness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alam, K. F. (1998). Ethics and accounting education. Teaching Business Ethics, 2(3): 261–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Apostolou, Barbara; Apostolou Nicholas 1997. “Heroes as a Context for Teaching Ethics” Journal of Education for Business 73(2):121–25.Aristotle. 1985. Nicomachean ethics. T. H. Irwin (Trans.) Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  3. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bass, B. & Steidlmeier, P. (1999). Ethics, Character, and Authentic Transformational leadership behavior. The Leadership Quarterly 10(2):181–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bishop, T. (1992). Integrating Business Ethics into an Undergraduate Curriculum Journal of Business Ethics 11:291–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bredemeir and Shields Bredemeier, Brenda Jo and David L. Shields, (1986). The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development 147(1): 7–18.Google Scholar
  7. Brinkmann, J. & Sims, R. R. (2001). Stakeholder sensitive business ethics teaching. Teaching Business Ethics, 5(2): 171–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cagle, J. and Baucus, M. 2006. “Case Studies of Ethics Scandals: Effects on Ethical Perceptions of Finance Students” Journal of Business Ethics 64(3): 213–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cano, C. and Sams, D. Advancing cognitive moral development: a field observation of college students, Journal of Academic and Business EthicsGoogle Scholar
  10. Ciulla, J. B.: 1991, ‘Business Ethics as Moral Imagination’, in R. E. Freeman (ed.), Business Ethics, the State of the Art, Oxford University Press, New York, 212–220Google Scholar
  11. Colby, A., Gibbs, J., Lieberman, M. and Kohlberg, L.: 1983. A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment: A Monograph for the Society of Research in Child Development (University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  12. Conroy, S. & Emerson, T. (2008). Ethical Cycles and Trends: Evidence and Implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(4):905–911.Google Scholar
  13. Cox, P. L.; Friedman, B. A.; Edwards, A. 2009. “Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room—Using the Enron Film to Examine Student Attitudes towards Business Ethics” Journal of Behavioral & Applied Management 10(2): 263–290.Google Scholar
  14. DeHaan, R. & Hanford, R. (1997). Promoting ethical reasoning, affect and behavior among high school students: An evaluation of three teaching strategies Journal of Moral Education 26(1): 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dellaportas, S. (2006). Making a difference with a discrete course on accounting ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 65(4):391–404.Google Scholar
  16. Desplaces, D.; Melchar, D.; Beauvais, L; Bosco, S. 2007. “The Impact of Business Education on Moral Judgment Competence: An Empirical Study” Journal of Business Ethics. 74(1):73–87.Google Scholar
  17. Dori, Yehudit J.; Tal, Revital; and Tsaushu, Masha 2003. “Teaching biotechnology through case studies—can we improve higher order thinking skills of nonscience majors?” Science Education 87(6): 767–793.Google Scholar
  18. Eynon, Gail; Hill, Nancy Thorley; Stevens, Kevin T. 1997. “Factors that influence the Moral reasoning abilities of accountants: implications for universities and the profession” Journal of Business Ethics 16(12/13): 1297–1309.Google Scholar
  19. Fairholm, G. W. 1998. Perspectives on leadership: From the science of management to its spiritual heart. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.Google Scholar
  20. Fletcher 1971. “Selected Personality Characteristics of High School Athletes and Nonathletes.” The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 77(1): 39–41.Google Scholar
  21. Foster, J. D. & LaForce, B. (1999) A longitudinal study of moral, religious, and identity development in a Christian liberal arts environment. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 27: 52–68.Google Scholar
  22. Gautschi III, F. H. and Jones, T. M. 1998. “Enhancing the Ability of Business Students to Recognize Ethical Issues: An Empirical Assessment of the Effectiveness of a Course in Business Ethics.” Journal of Business Ethics. 17(2): 205–216.Google Scholar
  23. Greenberg, J.: 2002, ‘Who Stole the Money and When? Individual and Situational Determinants of Employee Theft’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 89: 985–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hartman, Edwin M.. 2006. “Can We Teach Character? An Aristotelian Answer” Academy of Management Learning and Education 5(1): 68–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hertel, J. P. and Millis, B. J (2002) “Using simulations to promote learning in higher education: an in introduction.” Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Jones, D. 2009. “A Novel Approach to Business Ethics Training: Improving Moral Reasoning in Just a Few Weeks” Journal of Business Ethics 88(2): 367–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kanungo, R. N., & Mendonca, M. 1996. Ethical dimensions in leadership. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  28. Kim, Sara; Phillips, William R; Pinsky; Linda; Brock, Doug; Phillips, Kathryn; and Keary Jane 2006. “A conceptual framework for developing teaching cases: A review and synthesis of the literature across disciplines” Medical Education 40(9): 867–876.Google Scholar
  29. King, P.M. & Mayhew, M.J. 2002. “Moral judgement development in higher education: Insights from the Defining Issues Test.” Journal of Moral Education, 31(3): 247–270.Google Scholar
  30. Kohlberg, Lawrence. 1976. “Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive-developmental approach” in T. Lickona, ed. Moral Development and Behavior: Theory, Research and Social Issues. NY, Holt, Rinehart, Winston.Google Scholar
  31. Kohlberg, L. 1969. Stage and sequence: The cognitive developmental approach to socialization. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 347–480). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  32. Kohlberg, L. 1984(a). Essays on moral development: Volume 2, The psychology of moral development. New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  33. Kohlberg, L. 1984(b). The psychology of moral development: The nature and validity of moral stages. Harper & Row: San Francisco.Google Scholar
  34. Layden, T. 1995. “Campus Gambling – Better Education – First of Three Parts.” Sports Illustrated April 3.Google Scholar
  35. Loui, Michael 2009. “What can students learn from an extended role-play simulation on technology and society?” Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 29(1) 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McLaren, R. 2012. “Is Sport Losing its Integrity?” Marquette Sports Law Review, 21(2)).Google Scholar
  37. McNeel, S. P. 1994. College teaching and student moral development. In J.R. Rest & D. Narvarez, Moral development in the professions: Psychology and applied ethics (pp. 27–49). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Menkel-Meadow, Carrie. 2000–2001. “Telling Stories in School: Using Case Studies and Stories to Teach Legal Ethics” 69 Fordham L. Rev. 787.Google Scholar
  39. Nussbaum, M. C. 1990. Finely aware and richly responsible: Literature and the moral imagination. In Love’s knowledge: Essays on philosophy and literature, 148–167. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Oddo, Alfonso. 1997. “A Framework for Teaching Business Ethics,” Journal of Business Ethics 16(3):293–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pettifor, J. L., I. Estay and S. Paquet: 2000, ‘Preferred Strategies for Learning Ethics in the Practice of a Discipline’, Canadian Psychology 43 (4), 260–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Richards, Larry G.; Gorman, Michael; Scherer, William T.; Landel, Robert D. 1995. “Promoting Active Learning with Cases and Instructional Modules” Journal of Engineering Education 84(4): 375–381.Google Scholar
  43. Rest, J. R. 1979. The impact of higher education on moral judgment development (Technical report no. 5) Minneapolis, MN, Moral Research Projects.Google Scholar
  44. Rest, J. R. and Thoma, S.. 1985. Relationship of moral judgment development to formal education. Developmental Psychology, 21: 709–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rossouw, G. J. (2002). Three approaches to teaching business ethics. Teaching Business Ethics, 6(4): 411–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rest, J. and D. Narvaez (eds.). 1994, Moral Development in the Professions, Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ.Google Scholar
  47. Rest, J. R., Narvaez, D., Thoma, S. J., Bebeau, M. J.. 1999. DIT2: Devising and Testing a Revised Instrument of Moral Judgment Journal of Educational Psychology 91(4): 644–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schlaefli, A., J. R. Rest and S. J. Thoma: 1985, ‘Does Moral Education Improve Moral Judgment? A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Studies Using the Defining Issues Test’, Review of Educational Research 55 (3), 319–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Segal, L.; Gideon, L., Haberfeld, M. 2011. “Comparing the Ethical Attitudes of Business and Criminal Justice Students” Social Science Quarterly 92(4): 1021–1043.Google Scholar
  50. Seiler, S. N., Brummel, B. J., Anderson, K. L., Kim, K. J., Wee, S., Gunsalus, C. K. and Loui, M. C. 2011. “Outcomes assessment of role-play scenarios for teaching responsible conduct of research” Accountability in Research 18(4) 217–246.Google Scholar
  51. Shadnam, Masoud; Lawrence, Thomas. 2011 Business Ethics Quarterly 21(3):379–407.Google Scholar
  52. Shamir, B., House, R. J., and Arthur, M. B. (1993). “The motivational effects of charismatic leaders: A self-concept based theory.” Organization Science, 4, 577–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shaw, D., Shiu, E., Hassan, L, Bekin, C. and Hogg, G. (2007) Intending to be Ethical: An Examination of Consumer Choice in Sweatshop Avoidance. Advances in Consumer Research, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  54. Smith, Garry. 1991. “The ‘To Do’ over What To Do about Sports Gambling,” in William. R. Eadington and Judy A. Cornelius, Eds., Gambling and Public Policy (Reno, NV: Institute for the Study of Gambling & Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada).Google Scholar
  55. Sykes, G.M., and Matza, D. 1957. “Techniques of neutralization: A theory of Delinquency”, American Sociological Review 22: 664–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Trevino, Linda. 1986. “Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person-Situation Interactionist Model.” Academy of Management Review 11(3): 601–617.Google Scholar
  57. Trevino, L. K. 1992. Moral reasoning and business ethics: Implications for research, education, and management, Journal of Business Ethics, 11: 445–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Turiel, E. (1978). The develop of concepts of social structure: Social convention. In J. Glick and K. A. Clarke-Stewart (Eds.) The development of social understanding. NY: Gardner Press.Google Scholar
  59. Upton, Hugh. 2011. “Can there be a Moral Duty to Cheat in Sport?” Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 161–174.Google Scholar
  60. US CRNPTG, 1976. “Gambling in America: final report of the Commission on the Review of the National Policy Toward Gambling.” USA, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  61. Williams, D. D., Yanchar, S. C., Jensen, L. C., & Lewis, C. (2003). Character education in a public high school: A multi-year inquiry into Unified Studies. Journal of Moral Education 32(1): 3–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Williams, Scott David; Dewett, Todd. 2005. “Yes, You Can Teach Business Ethics: A Review and Research Agenda” Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 12(2): 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Xu, Yang; and Yang, Yi. 2010. “Student Learning in Business Simulation: An Empirical Investigation” Journal of Education for Business 85(4): 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Business SchoolSuffolk UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations