International Competitiveness of Countries with Performing Innovation Systems

  • Andreas Bielig
  • Józef Olszyński
  • Grażyna Wojtkowska-Łodej
  • Oskar Kowalewski
  • Tomasz Napiórkowski
Part of the Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management book series (ITKM)


There are three types of performing national innovation systems (NIS). The first subsystem belonging to this group can be found in France, Germany, UK, Italy, South Korea, and Taiwan. The second subsystem can be observed in two countries: the USA and Japan. The third subsystem consists of: Spain, Austria, Norway, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. In order to show the differences in using innovation and human capital for purposes of boosting competitiveness in international trade and to continue with the analysis of case studies, four examples of various performing NIS subsystems were selected: Germany, Austria, Spain, and the USA.


European Union Human Capital Labor Force Foreign Trade Unit Labor Cost 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.World Economy Research InstituteWarsaw School of EconomicsWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Foreign Trade and European Studies InstituteWarsaw School of EconomicsWarsawPoland

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