Financial Layering

  • Frederick Betz
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Economics book series (BRIEFSECONOMICS)


As we have seen, the endogenous school had focused upon financial systems, not only as processes but also as institutions. In 2012, Charles J. Whalen saw these two foci about financial systems as converging: “In the mid-1970s, Wallace C. Peterson…argued that institutionalism and the economics of John Maynard Keynes can be viewed as ‘two trains on parallel tracks toward a common destination’. Today, in the wake of the Great Recession (2007) —the worst global economic downturn since the 1930s—those trains have finally reached the station. Their arrival is none too soon for economics and the world economy. The common destination of institutionalism and the economics of Keynes, the latter of which is currently called Post-Keynesian economics, is Post-Keynesian Institutionalism (PKI).” (Whalen 2012)


Mutual Fund Hedge Fund Short Seller National Bank Trust Company 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick Betz
    • 1
  1. 1.Portland State UniversityPortlandUSA

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