Biodegradation of Nitrophenol Compounds

  • Nobutada KimuraEmail author
  • Wataru Kitagawa
  • Yoichi Kamagata
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Nitrophenol compounds have been used in a number of ways in medicines, explosives, and pesticides (Munnecke 1976). Due to the intense yellow color of the phenolate anion and pH reactivity (p-nitrophenol is colorless at pH 5.6 and the corresponding phenolate anion has a maximum yellow color at pH 7.6), nitrophenols are often used directly in titrations as indicators. Nitrophenols are also used in monitoring the enzyme activity, such as ß-galactosidase activity through detection of nitrophenol moiety and concomitant formation of the yellow color. Picric acid, also called 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, has been extensively used as a military explosive. In addition picric acid has been also used as a yellow dye, as an antiseptic and in the synthesis of chloropicrin, or nitrotrichloromethane, CCl3NO2, a powerful insecticide.


Picric Acid Toxic Release Inventory Clostridium Pasteurianum Janthino Bacterium Phenolate Anion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nobutada Kimura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wataru Kitagawa
    • 1
  • Yoichi Kamagata
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioproduction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)TsukubaJapan

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