Control of Seasonality and Interannual to Centennial Climate Variability in the Caribbean During the Holocene—Combining Coral Records, Stalagmite Records and Climate Models
This study aimed at quantifying the amplitudes of seasonality and interannual to centennial climate variability in the Caribbean region throughout the Holocene, by using marine (shallow-water corals) and terrestrial (speleothems) climate archives, and climate model simulations (COSMOS). Sea-surface temperature (SST) variability on interdecadal to multidecadal timescales was more pronounced during the mid-Holocene compared to the late Holocene. The amplitude of the SST annual cycle was within the present-day range throughout most of the last 6,000 years. Exceptions include slightly increased SST seasonality at 6,200 years ago, which can be attributed mainly to insolation forcing on orbital timescales, and an increased SST seasonality at 2,350 years ago that can be attributed to internal dynamics of the climate system (El Niño-Southern Oscillation). On multidecadal and millennial timescales, precipitation variability during the Holocene was strongly linked to SST in the North Atlantic Ocean, namely the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.
KeywordsTropical Atlantic Caribbean Sea Holocene Paleoclimate Seasonality Interannual to centennial variability Corals Speleothems Climate models
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