Attachment and Forgiveness in a Behavioural, Non-Cooperative Dynamic Game

  • Fouad El Ouardighi
Part of the International Series in Operations Research & Management Science book series (ISOR, volume 198)


Despite an extensive body of economic literature discussing partner selection based on rational anticipation of the other people’s behaviour, the influence of players’ behavioural patterns on the path of their collaborative decisions has as yet rarely been evaluated in the context of a dynamic game. This chapter seeks to fill that gap by proposing to evaluate how certain specific behavioural patterns, namely propensity to forgiveness and propensity to attachment, can give rise to different collaborative archetypes. These two behavioural patterns are important as both are prominent in the most influential game theory and managerial approaches to cooperation. They are therefore used to derive a typology of behavioural profiles. Computation of each profile’s equilibrium effort leads to a ranking of the possible player profiles. The results suggest that the proposed behavioural profiles could be used for selection of potential partners.


Cooperation Familiarity Trust Behavioural profile Dynamic games 


  1. Akerlof, G. A., & Kranton, R. E. (2010). Identity economics: How our identities affect our work, wages, and well-being. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Akerlof, G. A., & Kranton, R. E. (2000). Economics and identity. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 65, 715–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alchian, A., & Demsetz, H. (1972). Production, information costs, and economic organization. American Economic Review, 62, 777–795.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, E., & Weitz, B. (1989). Determinants of continuity in conventional industrial channel dyads. Marketing Science, 8, 310–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Axelrod, D. (1984). The evolution of cooperation. Basic Books.Google Scholar
  6. Bendor, J., & Mookherjee, D. (1990). Norms, third-party sanctions, and cooperation. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 6, 33–63.Google Scholar
  7. Benedicktus, R. L., Brady, M. K., Darke, P. R., & Voorhees, C. M. (2010). Conveying trustworthiness to online consumers: Reactions to consensus, physical store presence, brand familiarity, and generalized suspicion. Journal of Retailing, 86(4), 310–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Binmore, K. (1994). Playing fair: Game theory and the social contract I. MIT Press.Google Scholar
  9. Boyle, R., & Bonacich, P. (1970). The development of trust and mistrust in mixed-motive games. Sociometry, 33, 123–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brose, L. A., Rye, M. S., Lutz-Zois, C., & Ross, S. R. (2005). Forgiveness and personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Camerer, C. (2003). Behavioral game theory: Experiments in strategic interaction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Camerer, C., & Loewenstein, G. (2003). Behavioral economics: Past, present, future. In C. Camerer, G. Loewenstein, & R. Rabin (Eds.), Advances in behavioral economics. : Russell Sage Foundation Press and Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Das, T. K., & Teng, B. S. (2000). Instabilities of strategic alliances: An internal tensions perspective. Organization Science, 11, 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deutsch, M. (1958). Trust and suspicion. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 265–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dockner, E., Jørgensen, S., Van Long, N., & Sorger, G. (2000). Differential games in economics and management science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Druckman, D., & Broome, B. J. (1991). Value differences and conflict resolution: Familiarity or liking? Journal of Conflict Resolution, 35, 571–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dutta, S., Bergen, M., & John, G. (1994). The governance of exclusive territories when dealers can bootleg. Marketing Science, 13, 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dwyer, F. R., Schurr, P. H., & Oh, S. (1987). Developing buyer-seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 51, 11–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dyer, J. H., & Chu, W. (2003). The role of trustworthiness in reducing costs and improving performance: Empirical evidence from the United States, Japan, and Korea. Organization Science, 14, 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. El Ouardighi, F. (2002). The dynamics of cooperation. International Game Theory Review, 4, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fehr, E., & Gachter, S. (2000). Cooperation and punishment in public goods experiments. American Economic Review, 90, 980–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fershtman, C., & Nitzan, S. (1991). Dynamic voluntary provision of public goods. European Economic Review, 35, 1057–1067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fudenberg, D., & Maskin, E. (1990). Evolution and cooperation in noisy repeated games. American Economic Review, 80, 274–279.Google Scholar
  24. Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: A theory of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 481–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gulati, R. (1995). Does familiarity breed trust? The implications of repeated ties for contractual choice in alliances. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 85–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gulati, R., & Zajac, E. J. (2000). Reflections on the study of strategic alliances. In D. Faulkner & M. de Rond (Eds.), Cooperative strategy: Economic, business, and organizational issues: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Griffin, D. W., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). The metaphysics of measurement: The case of adult attachment. Advances in Personal Relationships, 5, 17–52.Google Scholar
  28. Hart, O., & Moore, J. (1990). Property rights and the nature of the firm. Journal of Political Economy, 98, 1119–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hill, C. W. L. (1990). Cooperation, opportunism, and the invisible hand: Implications for transaction cost theory. Academy of Management Journal, 15, 500–513.Google Scholar
  30. Hirshleifer, D., & Rasmusen, E. (1989). Cooperation in a repeated prisoners’ dilemma with ostracism. Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization, 12, 87–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huckman, R. S., Staats, B. R., & Upton, D. M. (2009). Team familiarity, role experience, and performance: Evidence from Indian software services. Management Science, 55, 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jackson, M., & Watts, A. (2002). The evolution of social and economic networks. Journal of Economic Theory, 106, 265–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leibenstein, H. (1987). Inside the firm. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. The Academy of Management Review, 20, 709–734.Google Scholar
  35. McAllister, D. (1995). Affect- and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 10–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McEvily, B., Perrone, V., & Zaheer, A. (2003). Trust as an organizing principle. Organization Science, 14, 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rapoport, A., & Chammah, A. M. (1965). Prisoner’s dilemma. University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  38. Raub, W., & Weesie, J. (1990). Reputation and efficiency in social interactions: An example of network effects. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 626–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ross, S. R., & Hertenstein, M. J. (2007). Maladaptive correlates of the failure to forgive self and others: Further evidence for a two-component model of forgiveness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 88, 158–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rotter, J. B. (1967). A new scale for the measurement of interpersonal trust. Journal of Personality, 36, 651–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sako, M. (1998). The information requirements of trust in supplier relations: Evidence from Japan, Europe and the United States. In N. Lazaric & E. Lorenz (Eds.), Trust and economic learning. : Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  42. Solomon, L. (1960). The influence of some types of power relationships and game strategies upon the development of interpersonal trust. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61, 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steinmetz, S. (1993). The random house Webster’s Dictionary. Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  44. Wathne, K. H., & Heide, J. B. (2000). Opportunism in interfirm relationships: Forms, outcomes, and solutions. Journal of Marketing, 64, 36–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wicks, A. C., Berman, S. L., & Jones, T. M. (1999). The structure of optimal trust: Moral and strategic implications. The Academy of Management Review, 24, 99–116.Google Scholar
  46. Williamson, O. E. (1975). Markets and hierarchies: Analysis and anti-trust implications. The Free PressGoogle Scholar
  47. Williamson, O. E. (1985). The economic institutions of capitalism. The Free Press.Google Scholar
  48. Zaheer, A., McEvily, B., & Perrone, V. (1998). Does trust matter? Exploring the effects of interorganizational and interpersonal trust on performance. Organization Science, 9, 141–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ESSEC Business SchoolCergy PontoiseFrance

Personalised recommendations