The Cloud of Things Empowered Smart Grid Cities

  • Stamatis KarnouskosEmail author
Part of the Internet of Things book series (ITTCC)


The emergence of the Smart Grid era fuels a new generation of innovative applications and services that are built upon fine-grained monitoring and control capabilities pertaining the underlying infrastructure, such as that of future Smart Cities. Collection, processing and analytics on the Internet of Things of massively generated data, as well as potential management functions will emerge; therefore making a reality informed real-time decision making as well as its enforcement in a timely manner over complex infrastructures. The prevalence of the Cloud and its services, can very well complement the Internet of Things when it comes to massive data management, giving rise to the Cloud of Things (CoT). For the next generation applications, the CoT can enable access to generic multi-modal energy services, on-top of which development of more sophisticated solutions can be realized. We depict here such Smart Grid services for the Smart City of the future, as well as experiences from their realization.


Smart Grid Smart City Energy Service Energy Management System Energy Trading 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author would like to thank Dejan Ilic and Per Goncalves Da Silva of SAP Research, as well as the partners of the EU research projects NOBEL ( and SmartKYE (


  1. 1.
    acatech. Cyber-Physical Systems: Driving force for innovation in mobility, health, energy and production. Tech. rep., acatech—National Academy of Science and Engineering. (2011)
  2. 2.
    Björkskog, C.A., Jacucci, G., Gamberini, L., Nieminen, T., Mikkola, T., Torstensson, C., Bertoncini, M.: Energylife: pervasive energy awareness for households. In: Proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference Adjunct Papers on Ubiquitous Computing—Adjunct, Ubicomp ’10 Adjunct, ACM, New York, pp. 361–362 (2010). doi: 10.1145/1864431.1864436
  3. 3.
    Bryson, J., Gallagher, P.D.: NIST framework and roadmap for smart grid interoperability standards, release 2.0. Tech. Rep. NIST Special Publication 1108R2, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). (2012)
  4. 4.
    Carosio, S., Hannus, M., Mastrodonato, C., Delponte, E., Cavallaro, A., Cricchio, F., Karnouskos, S., Pereira-Carlos, J., Rodriguez, C.B., Nilsson, O., Seppä, I.P., Sasin, T., Zach, J., van Beurden, H., Anderson, T.: ICT Roadmap for Energy-Efficient Buildings—Research and Actions. EU Project ICT4E2B Consortium. (2013)
  5. 5.
    Carreiro, A.M., Lopez, G.L., Moura, P.S., Moreno, J.I., de Almeida, A.T., Malaquias, J.L.: In-house monitoring and control network for the Smart Grid of the future. In: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe IEEE PES, pp. 1–7 (2011). doi: 10.1109/ISGTEurope. 2011.6162736
  6. 6.
    Easley, D., Kleinberg, J.: Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning About a Highly Connected World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (2010)
  7. 7.
    European Commission. SmartGrids SRA 2035—Strategic Research Agenda: Update of the SmartGrids SRA 2007 for the needs by the year 2035. Tech. rep., European Technology Platform SmartGrids, European Commission. (2012)
  8. 8.
    Federation of German Industries (BDI). Internet of Energy: ICT for energy markets of the future. BDI publication No. 439. (2010)
  9. 9.
    Fortino, G., Guerrieri, A., Russo, W., Savaglio, C.: Middlewares for smart objects and smart environments: overview and comparison. Internet of Things Based on Smart Objects: Technology, Middleware and Applications. Springer Series on the Internet of Things (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Giordano, V., Meletiou, A., Covrig, C.F., Mengolini, A., Ardelean, M., Fulli, G., Jiménez, M.S., Filiou, C.: Smart Grid Projects in Europe: Lessons Learned and Current Developments 2012 Update. Joint Research Center of the European Commission, JRC79219 (2013). doi: 10.2790/82707
  11. 11.
    Ilić, D., Goncalves Da Silva, P., Karnouskos, S., Griesemer, M.: An energy market for trading electricity in smart grid neighbourhoods. In: 6th IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystem Technologies—Complex Environment Engineering (IEEE DEST-CEE), Campione d’Italia, Italy (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ilic, M., Xie, L., Khan, U., Moura, J.: Modeling future cyber-physical energy systems. In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting—Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, pp 1–9 (2008). doi: 10.1109/PES.2008.4596708
  13. 13.
    International Telecommunication Union. ITU Internet Report 2005: the internet of things. Tech. rep., (ITU) (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kagermann, H., Wahlster, W., Helbig, J.: Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0. Tech. rep., acatech—National Academy of Science and Engineering. (2013)
  15. 15.
    Karnouskos, S.: The cooperative internet of things enabled smart grid. In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics (ISCE2010), June, pp. 07–10. Braunschweig, Germany (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karnouskos, S.: Communityware smartgrid. In: 21st International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2011), Frankfurt (2011a)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Karnouskos, S.: Cyber-physical systems in the smartgrid. In: IEEE 9th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Lisbon (2011b)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karnouskos, S.: Demand side management via prosumer interactions in a smart city energy marketplace. In: IEEE International Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT 2011), Manchester (2011c)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Karnouskos, S.: Asset monitoring in the service-oriented internet of things empowered smartgrid. Service Oriented Computing and Applications, pp. 1–8 (2012). doi: 10.1007/s11761-012-0102-6
  20. 20.
    Karnouskos, S.: Smart houses in the smart grid and the search for value-added services in the cloud of things era. In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT 2013), Cape Town (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Karnouskos, S., Vilaseñor, V., Handte, M., Marrón, P.J.: Ubiquitous integration of cooperating objects. Int. J. Next-Generat. Comput. 2(3), (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karnouskos, S., Goncalves Da Silva, P., Ilić, D.: Energy services for the smart grid city. In: 6th IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystem Technologies—Complex Environment Engineering (IEEE DEST-CEE), Campione d’Italia, Italy (2012a)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Karnouskos, S., Ilić, D., Goncalves Da Silva, P.: Using flexible energy infrastructures for demand response in a smart grid city. In: The third IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT) Europe, Berlin (2012b)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Karnouskos, S., Goncalves Da Silva, P., Ilić, D.: Developing a web application for monitoring and management of smart grid neighborhoods. In: IEEE 11th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Bochum (2013a)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Karnouskos, S., lić, D., Goncalves Da Silva, P.: Assessment of an enterprise energy service platform in a smart grid city pilot. In: IEEE 11th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Bochum (2013b)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Katz, R., Culler, D., Sanders, S., Alspaugh, S., Chen, Y., Dawson-Haggerty, S., Dutta, P., He, M., Jiang, X., Keys, L., Krioukov, A., Lutz, K., Ortiz, J., Mohan, P., Reutzel, E., Taneja, J., Hsu, J., Shankar, S.: An information-centric energy infrastructure: the berkeley view. Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems (2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kok, K., Karnouskos, S., Ringelstein, J., Dimeas, A., Weidlich, A., Warmer, C., Drenkard, S., Hatziargyriou, N., Lioliou, V.: Field-testing smart houses for a smart grid. In: 21st International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2011), Frankfurt (2011)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lomas, N.: Online Gizmos Could Top 50 Billion in 2020. (2009)
  29. 29.
    Maier, M.W.: Architecting principles for systems-of-systems. Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Incvol. 1, issue no. 4, pp. 267–284 (1998)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marqués, A., Serrano, M., Karnouskos, S., Marrón, P.J., Sauter, R., Bekiaris, E., Kesidou, E., Höglund, J.: NOBEL—a neighborhood oriented brokerage electricity and monitoring system. In: 1st International ICST Conference on E-Energy, 14–15 Oct 2010 Athens. Springer (2010)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marrón, P.J., Karnouskos, S., Minder, D., Ollero, A. (eds): The Emerging Domain of Cooperating Objects. Springer (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16946-5
  32. 32.
    Müllner, R., Riener, A.: An energy efficient pedestrian aware smart street lighting system. Int. J. Perv. Comput. Commun. 7(2), 147–161 (2011). doi: 10.1108/17427371111146437,
  33. 33.
    Paetz, A.G., Becker, B., Fichtner, W., Schmeck, H.: Shifting electricity demand with smart home technologies—an experimental study on user acceptance. In: 30th USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Online Proceedings (2011)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Perdikeas, M., Zahariadis, T., Plaza, P.: The beywatch conceptual model for demand-side management. In: Hatziargyriou, N., Dimeas, A., Tomtsi, T., Weidlich, A. (eds.) Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, vol. 54, pp. 177–186. Springer, Berlin. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-19322-419 (2011)
  35. 35.
    Savitz, E.: Gartner: top 10 strategic technology trends for 2013. (2012)
  36. 36.
    Šikšnys, L., Khalefa, M.E., Pedersen, T.B.: Aggregating and disaggregating flexibility objects. In: Proceedings of the 24th international conference on Scientific and Statistical Database Management, Springer, Berlin SSDBM’12, pp 379–396 (2012). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-31235-925
  37. 37.
    Sundramoorthy, V., Liu, Q., Cooper, G., Linge, N., Cooper, J.: Dehems: a user-driven domestic energy monitoring system. In: Internet of Things (IOT), IoT for a green Planet, Tokyo. IEEE (2010). doi: 10.1109/IOT.2010.5678451
  38. 38.
    Tompros, S., Mouratidis, N., Draaijer, M., Foglar, A., Hrasnica, H.: Enabling applicability of energy saving applications on the appliances of the home environment. IEEE Netw. 23(6), 8–16. (2009). doi: 10.1109/MNET.2009.5350347
  39. 39.
    US Department of Energy. Benefits of demand response in electricity markets and recommendations for achieving them. Tech. rep., US Department of Energy. (2006)
  40. 40.
    Valocchi, M., Juliano, J.: Knowledge is power—driving smarter energy usage through consumer education. Tech. rep., IBM Institute for Business Value. (2012)
  41. 41.
    Vasseur, J.P., Dunkels, A.: Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP: The Next Internet. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco (2010)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yin, J., Kulkarni, A., Purohit, S., Gorton, I., Akyol, B.: Scalable real time data management for smart grid. In: Proceedings of the Middleware 2011 Industry Track Workshop, ACM, New York, Middleware ’11, pp. 1:1–1:6 (2011)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yu, X., Cecati, C., Dillon, T., Simões, M.: The new frontier of smart grids. IEEE Ind. Electron. Magaz. 5(3):49–63 (2011). doi: 10.1109/MIE.2011.942176

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SAP ResearchKarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations