Probabilistic Real Swarm Logical Gate

  • Yuta NishiyamaEmail author
  • Yukio-Pegio Gunji
  • Andrew Adamatzky
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Complexity book series (SPCOM)


Computation can be implemented by natural entities. We established that a swarm of soldier crabs probabilistically performed basic logical operations through geometrically constrained channels. Two inputs three outputs logical gate G simultaneously performed NOT x AND y, x AND y and x AND NOT y. The logical gate G also could be treated as a logical gate G′ that performed NOT x. Next we proposed a logical gate G″ that performed x OR y. Moreover we illustrated how three fundamental gates could be assembled into circuits. Then we discuss about an integration of gates and a circuit as a relationship between part and wholeness.


Biological computing Part and wholeness Soldier crab Swarm 


  1. 1.
    Adamatzky A (ed) (2002) Collision-based computing. Springer, Berlin zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fredkin E, Toffoli T (1982) Conservative logic. Int J Theor Phys 21:219–253 MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Costello BDL, Adamatzky A (2005) Experimental implementation of collision-based gates in Belousov–Zhabotinsky medium. Chaos Solitons Fractals 25:535–544 ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tsuda S, Aono M, Gunji YP (2004) Robust and emergent Physarum logical computing. Biosystems 73:45–55 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Adamatzky A (2010) Slime mould logical gates: exploring ballistic approach. arXiv:1005.2301v1 [nlin.PS]
  6. 6.
    Tsuda S, Zauner KP, Gunji YP (2007) Robot control with biological cells. Biosystems 87:2–3. 215–223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gunji YP, Murakami H, Niizato T, Adamatzky A, Nishiyama Y, Enomoto K, Toda M, Moriyama T, Matsui T, Iizuka K (2011) Embodied swarming based on back propagation through time shows water-crossing, hour glass and logic-gate behavior. In: Lenaerts T et al. (eds) Advances in artificial life, pp 294–301 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gunji YP, Nishiyama Y, Adamatzky A (2011) Robust soldier crab ball gate. Complex Syst 20:94–104 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nishiyama Y, Gunji YP, Adamatzky A (2012) Collision-based computing implemented by soldier crab swarms. Int J Parallel Emerg Distrib Syst 1–8. doi: 10.1080/17445760.2012.662682
  10. 10.
    Nishiyama Y, Enomoto K, Toda M, Moriyama T, Gunji YP (2011) Autonomous oscillations of soldier crabs. In: Proc ICMC2011, pp 117–119 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuta Nishiyama
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yukio-Pegio Gunji
    • 1
  • Andrew Adamatzky
    • 2
  1. 1.Kobe UniversityKobeJapan
  2. 2.University of the West EnglandBristolUK

Personalised recommendations