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Neurogenesis in Substantia Nigra of Parkinsonian Brains?

  • Oscar Arias-Carrión
  • Elizabeth Yamada
  • Nils Freundlieb
  • Miriam Djufri
  • Lukas Maurer
  • Guido Hermanns
  • Bastian Ipach
  • Wei-Hua Chiu
  • Corinna Steiner
  • Wolfgang H Oertel
  • Günter U HöglingerEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa book series (NEURALTRANS, volume 73)

Abstract

The clinical motor dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease is primarily the consequence of a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the nigrostriatal pathway. The degeneration of this tract provokes a depletion of dopamine in the striatum, where it is required as a permissive factor for normal motor function. Despite intense investigations, no effective therapy is available to prevent the onset or to halt the progression of the neuronal cell loss. Therefore, recent years have seen research into the mechanisms of endogenous repair processes occurring in the adult brain, particularly in the substantia nigra. Neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain in a constitutive manner under physiological circumstances within two regions: the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. In contrast to these two so-called neurogenic areas, the remainder of the brain is considered to be primarily nonneurogenic in nature, implying that no new neurons are produced there under normal conditions. The occurrence of adult neurogenesis in the substantia nigra under the pathological conditions of Parkinson’s disease, however, remains controversial. Here, we review the published evidence of whether adult neurogenesis exists or not within the substantia nigra, where dopaminergic neurons are lost in Parkinson’s disease.

Keywords

Dopamine Neurogenesis Parkinson’s disease Regenerative medicine Stem cells Substantia nigra 

Abbreviations

6-OHDA

6-hydroxydopamine

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BrdU

5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine

GDNF

Glia-derived neurotrophic factor

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

LGF

Liver growth factor

MPTP

1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine

NeuN

Neuronal nuclei antigen

NSCs

Neural stem cells

OB

Olfactory bulb

PCNA

Proliferating cells nuclear antigen

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PDGF-BB

Platelet-derived growth factor-BB

PSA-NCAM

Polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule

RMS

Rostral migratory stream

SGZ

Subgranular zone

SNc

Substantia Nigra pars compacta

SNr

Sustantia Nigra pars reticulata

SVZ

Subventricular zone

TGFα

Transforming growth factor-alpha

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research Network “Stem Cells in PD” (grant 01GN0513) and the Peter Hofmann Research Project. OA-C is funded by the DAAD.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien Printed in Germany 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oscar Arias-Carrión
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Yamada
    • 2
  • Nils Freundlieb
    • 1
  • Miriam Djufri
    • 1
  • Lukas Maurer
    • 1
  • Guido Hermanns
    • 1
  • Bastian Ipach
    • 1
  • Wei-Hua Chiu
    • 1
  • Corinna Steiner
    • 1
  • Wolfgang H Oertel
    • 1
  • Günter U Höglinger
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Experimental NeurologyPhilipps UniversityMarburgGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Biological SciencesFederal University of ParáBelémBrazil

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