Sonographic Evaluation in Carotid Artery Stenosis

  • B. K. Lal


Over three decades ago, Doppler was introduced as the first ultrasonographic method for evaluation of cerebrovascular disease. Since then, the development of new ultrasound techniques has revolutionized the clinical applications for extracranial carotid disease. Interpretation of pulse wave Doppler signals involves an analysis of audio signals and the frequency spectrum. It is based on the Doppler frequency shift resulting from moving red blood cells in the carotid artery. In experienced hands, pulse wave Doppler ultrasound can identify significant luminal narrowing based on increased velocity of blood flow across a stenotic lesion. High-resolution B-mode ultrasound scanning uses linear array transducers (7–12 MHz) to display morphological features of the arterial wall. Duplex ultrasonography (DUS) combines integrated PW Doppler spectrum analysis and B-mode sonography. The B-mode image offers information about morphology in addition to serving as a guide for accurate PW Doppler velocity measurement.


Carotid Endarterectomy Carotid Stenosis Peak Systolic Velocity Carotid Artery Stenosis Asymptomatic Carotid 
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© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. K. Lal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical SchoolUniversity of Medicine and Dentistry of New JerseyNewarkUSA

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