From Imaging to Therapy in Carotid Artery Stenosis: from the Surgical Point of View

  • K. Bettermann
  • J. F. Toole


Ischemic stroke results from a multitude of causes but more than 30% are due to atherosclerosis of arteries providing blood to the brain. More than 67% of all atherosclerotic carotid lesions are located in the extracranial cerebral circulation with 38% percent of those being found in the region of the carotid bifurcation [9], [38]. Atheromatous plaques in the bifurcation occur frequently as flow characteristics of blood are altered at arterial branching points causing turbulence and shear stress [74]. Less common locations are in the carotid siphon, at the origin of the ophthalmic artery or in both locations (tandem lesions).


Carotid Endarterectomy Carotid Stenosis Carotid Artery Stenting Carotid Artery Stenosis Absolute Risk Reduction 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Bettermann
    • 1
  • J. F. Toole
    • 1
  1. 1.Wake Forest University School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA

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