Skip to main content

Mathematics in Berlin, 1810–1933

  • Chapter

Abstract

When Berlin University opened in 1810, Prussia stood under French occupation as Napoléon’s grande armée swept across Europe. Five years later, the Congress of Vienna sought to restabilise European relations by largely restoring the old order, thereby leaving a major question mark concerning the political constructs that were to constitute the modern nation states within the Continent’s centre. During the ensuing period, culminating in the dramatic events of 1848-49, students and other intellectuals crusaded for democratic reforms while governments cracked down on political agitation, beginning with the Carlsbad decrees of 1819. Hopes ran high in liberal university circles that Prussia, the most powerful and in many respects one of the more progressive of the German states, would take the lead in uniting Germany into a constitutional monarchy along lines similar to the French and British models. But after King Frederick William IV refused to accept the crown offered him by the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849, events soon took a sharp turn toward confrontation, and liberal dreams quickly dissolved after the hopelessness of military resistance became apparent. Fifteen years later, a younger generation would begin to discount the old ideals of the 1848ers in a world shaped by the “new” ethos of Bismarck’s Realpolitik, the politics of “blood and iron.”

Keywords

  • Modern Nation State
  • Georg Cantor
  • Full Professorship
  • Constitutional Monarchy
  • Prussian Academy

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-0348-8787-8_2
  • Chapter length: 18 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   44.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-0348-8787-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Biermann, K.-R., Die Mathematik und ihre Dozenten an der Berliner Universität, 1810-1933, Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1988.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. Calinger, R., The Mathematics Seminar at the University of Berlin, in: Calinger, R. (ed.), Vita Mathematica, The Mathematical Association of America, Washington, 1996, 153–176.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Cooke, R., The Mathematics of Sonya Kovalevskaya, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. van Dalen, D., The War of the Frogs and the Mice, or the Crisis of the Mathematische Annalen, The Mathematical Intelligencer 12 (4) (1990), 17–31.

    MathSciNet  MATH  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Dauben, J. W., Georg Cantor, His Mathematics and Philosophy of the Infinite, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1979.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  6. Dieudonné, J., Pour l’honneur de l’esprit humain, Hachette, Paris, 1987; Engl. trans., Mathematics — The Music of Reason, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1992.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  7. Hilbert, D., Gedenkrede auf Hermann Minkowski, Math. Ann. 68 (1910), 445–471, reprinted in Hilbert, D., Gesammelte Abhandlungen, 3 vols., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1932, 1933, 1935, vol. 3, 339-364.

    MathSciNet  MATH  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Jacobi, C.G.J., Gesammelte Werke, vol. 1, Georg Reimer, Berlin, 1884.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  9. Kaufmann-Bühler, W., Gauss, A Biographical Study, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Klein, F., Vorlesungen über die Entwicklung der Mathematik im 19. Jahrhundert, 2 vols., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1926–1927.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Koenigsberger, L., C.G.J. Jacobi, Teubner, Leipzig und Berlin, 1904.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  12. Laugwitz, D., Bernhard Riemann, 1826-1866, in: Vita Mathematica, vol. 10, Birkhäuser, Basel, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Mehrtens, H., Ludwig Bieberbach and Deutsche Mathematik, in: Phillips, E. (ed.), Studies in the History of Mathematics, The Mathematical Association of America, Washington, 1987, 195–241.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Mehrtens, H., Moderne-Sprache-Mathematik, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt, 1990.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  15. Purkert, W., Ilgauds, H.J., Georg Cantor, 1845-1918, in: Vita Mathematica, vol. 1, Birkhäuser, Basel, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Reid, C., Hilbert, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1970.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  17. Rowe, D.E., Jewish Mathematics at Göttingen in the Era of Felix Klein, Isis 77 (1986), 422–449.

    MathSciNet  MATH  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Rowe, D.E., Klein, Hilbert, and the Göttingen Mathematical Tradition, in: Olesko, K.M. (ed.), Science in Germany: The Intersection of Institutional and Intellectual Issues, Osiris 5 (1989), 189–213.

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  19. Royden, H., The History of the Mathematics Department at Stanford, in: Duren, P. (ed.), A Century of Mathematics in America, Part II, American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 1989, 237–278.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Scharlau, W. (ed.), Richard Dedekind, 1831-1891, Vieweg, Braunschweig-Wiesbaden, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Siegmund-Schnitze, R., Mathematische Berichterstattung in Hitlerdeutschland, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1998 Springer Basel AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Rowe, D.E. (1998). Mathematics in Berlin, 1810–1933. In: Begehr, H., Koch, H., Kramer, J., Schappacher, N., Thiele, EJ. (eds) Mathematics in Berlin. Birkhäuser, Basel. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-8787-8_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-8787-8_2

  • Publisher Name: Birkhäuser, Basel

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-7643-5943-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-0348-8787-8

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive