## Abstract

In November, 1925, Frenkel goes to Berlin and spends almost a year in Germany, France and England. His letters to his parents^{1} form the basis of this chapter.

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## Notes

- 1).His correspondence with his wife seems to be lost.Google Scholar
- 2).A.F. Ioffe wrote from Berlin: «Yesterday I was here at a colloquium, where Frenkel’s paper on metals was presented and very much praised (especially by Einstein)» (cit. by: M.S. Sominsky «A.F. Ioffe», p. 470 (in Russian)).Google Scholar
- 3).«Evening Red Gazette.»Google Scholar
- 4).J.I. Frenkel. Memoirs, Letters, Documents. Leningrad: Nauka, 1986, p. 336 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 5).Probably, one of the conversations of Einstein with J.I. himself is implied.Google Scholar
- 6).Encyclopedic dictionary «Granat», v. 51, p. 151.Google Scholar
- 7).We have described this article earlier (see Ch. 2).Google Scholar
- 8).G. Wentzel later became distinguished through his studies in quantum electrodynamics.Google Scholar
- 9).Frenkel speaks here about the paper on the electron spin («Electrodynamics of a rotating electron»). It was finished in Nice in April, 1926, and ended with acknowledgements to Pauli and Langevin.Google Scholar
- 10).Leon Brillouin, French physicist, theoretician, who worked in the field of solid state quantum physics (the bands in the energy spectrum of solids are known under his name), information theory, etc. In 1941 he emigrated to the USA.Google Scholar
- 11).S.I. Metal’nikov was a biologist, lecturing in Tavricheskiy University (in the Crimea) from 1918–20, and then emigrated to France. He worked at the Pasteur Institute.Google Scholar
- 12).An extremely flattering presentation marking the title of professor was composed by a committee of A.F. Ioffe, Yu.A. Krutkov and V.R. Bursian after J.I. had departed to Germany (See Archives of the A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, personal file # 548, pp. 6-12 (in Russian)).Google Scholar
- 13).The paper about the Faraday effect (i.e., about the rotation of the light polarization plane in the magnetic field).Google Scholar
- 14).See the letter of January 24, 1926.Google Scholar
- 15).Scientific-astrological advice.Google Scholar
- 16).Viktor Nikolaevich and Yelena Ivanovna.Google Scholar
- 17).P. Debye is a famous physicist, the author of classical papers on the thermal capacity theory, electrolyte theory, etc.Google Scholar
- 18).A zoo in Hamburg founded by K. Hagenbeck.Google Scholar
- 19).«On the theory of the elasticity limit and the strength of crystal bodies» (Zeitschrift für Physik, Bd. 37, S. 572, 1926).Google Scholar
- 20).About a rotating electron.Google Scholar
- 21).In a postcard from Paris, of March 20, 1926, J.I. wrote: «This morning I was honoured to be promoted into the company of Einstein, Langevin, and Mme Curie at her institute, and even gave them a brief account of my latest paper».Google Scholar
- 22).O.A. Starosel’skaya-Nikitina. Paul Langevin. Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1962, p. 169, (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 23).This excerpt from the G. Claude speech may be found in the op. cit. of O.A. Starosel’skaya-Nikitina.Google Scholar
- 24).Vestnik Akad. Nauk SSSR, # 5, pp. 44–45, 1947 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 25).Yu. Rumer. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, v. 78, 1962, p. 695 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 26).«King’s road» (Lat).Google Scholar
- 27).See footnote 25.Google Scholar
- 28).M. Born. Jacov Frenkel. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, 1962, v. 76, # 3, p. 431 (in Russian). See also: J.L Frenkel. Memoirs, Letters, Documents. Leningrad: Nauka, 1986, p. 76 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 29).In Zoppot (Sopot), a resort town on the North Sea coast, J.I. lived in 1913.Google Scholar
- 30).Meaning: «Towers of Bismark» or «Stones of Bismark».Google Scholar
- 31).Hund is German for «dog».Google Scholar
- 32).Among them, in particular, was R. Oppenheimer.Google Scholar
- 33).A privy councillor in Germany.Google Scholar
- 34).Fraternities (German).Google Scholar
- 35).Duel (German).Google Scholar
- 36).«Soviet Physics Successes».Google Scholar
- 37).One such animate subject, says Kapitza who remembers this evening very well, was a policeman met by the company.Google Scholar
- 38).This photo is reproduced in: «A.F. Ioffe. Meetings with physicists». Moscow, Fizmatgiz, 1960, p. 76 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 39).All the persons mentioned worked at the State Physical-Technical Röntgen Institute (later simply Physical-Technical Institute) in Leningrad.Google Scholar
- 40).«But, gentlemen, that is not physics».Google Scholar
- 41).J.I. seems to be speaking here about the probability interpretation of the wavefunction.Google Scholar
- 42).Tat’yana Alekseevna Afanas’eva-Ehrenfest.Google Scholar
- 43).Nataliya Nikolaevna Semenova, the wife of N.N. Semenov.Google Scholar
- 44).The State Publishing House (abbreviation in Russian).Google Scholar
- 45).Scientific Editor of the State Publishing House.Google Scholar
- 46).LE. Tamm. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, 1962, v. 76., # 3, p. 411 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 47).J.I. Frenkel. Lehrbuch der Electrodynamik, Bd. I, S. VIL Berlin, 1926. (in German).Google Scholar
- 48).Ph. Frank. Scientia, v. 25, p. 192, 1931. Philipp Frank, Einstein’s successor at the Chair of Prague University, a famous physicist-encyclopaedician who, along with R. Mises, published a book which was well-known in the thirties: «Differential and Integral Equations of Mathematical Physics».Google Scholar
- 49).«Nature», v. 19, # 3006, p. 851, 1927.Google Scholar
- 50).I.E. Tamm. In: J.I. Frenkel. Electrodynamics. Collection of Selected Papers, v. I. Acad. of Sci. of the USSR Publ. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956, p. 3 (in Russian). See also: B.G. Kuznetsov. The Evolution of Electrodynamics. Acad. of Sci. of the USSR Publ. Moscow, 1963, pp. 129-132 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 51).I.K. Kikoin. In: J.I. Frenkel. Memories, Letters, Documents. Leningrad: Nauka, 1986, p. 66 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 52).Theoretical Physics of the XXth Century. IL, Moscow, 1962 (in Russian). See also: V.J. Frenkel. Paul Ehrenfest (2nd edition). Moscow: Atomizdat, 1977, pp. 137–145 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 53).P. Ehrenfest. Collected Scientific Papers. Amsterdam, 1959, p. 478.Google Scholar
- 54).J.I. means a representation of the rotating sphere as a set of currents running in the planes perpendicular to the rotation axis.Google Scholar
- 55).ZhRFKhO, phys. ser., v. 50, 4-6, p. 143, 1919 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 56).On the other hand, one also cannot avoid noticing a characteristic discrepancy here. In 1925 J.I. intensively studied the electrodynamics of point electrons (ZRHFO, phys. ser., v. 7, 3-4, p. 393, 1925; Zeitschrift für Physik, Bd. 32, S. 516, 1925). On February 23, 1926, he wrote to Ya.I. Perel’man: «No matter how disgusting the thought of an extended electron is to me, the hypothesis of a rotating electron explains the anomalous Zeeman effect in such an easy and natural way, as well as the similarity between X-ray and optical doublets, nonmagnetism of helium and other noble elements, that I’m starting to believe in it.» (See: Archive of the USSR Ac. of Sci., f. 796, file 3, # 18).Google Scholar
- 57).Ya.A. Smorodinskii and I.E. Tamm in: J.I. Frenkel. «Collection of Selected Papers», v. 2, Leningrad-Moscow: 1958. AN SSSR publ, pp. 455–456 (in Russian).Google Scholar
- 58).J.I. here means Philipp Frank who often visited Göttingen and was there in the autumn of 1926.Google Scholar
- 59).A priority right for a topic was defended not only by Göttingen physicists. This may be illustrated by the example of the famous American chemist M. Gomberg, who discovered free radicals. He concluded one of his papers («Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft», Bd. 33, S. 3163, 1900) with the following words: «The investigation will be continued, and I would like to ask that this field be left to me for the time being.» It really is a polite form of something like: «I will continue to work here and do not want anybody to interfere.»Google Scholar

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