Back to Petrograd

  • Victor Ya. Frenkel


On their way to Petrograd the Frenkels made a stop in Moscow. There J.I. dealt first of all with the matters associated with his recent life in the Crimea. At the end of December 1920, essential disagreement had occurred between J.I. and the Office of the Crimea Narobraz1, of the People’s Commissariat for Education (Narkompros) concerning the further reorganization of Tavrichesky University and the measures to be to taken.


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  1. 1).
    Russian abbreviation for People’s Education Department.Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    See J.I.’s letter of December 8, 1920.Google Scholar
  3. 3).
    See: A.K. Synopalov, Transactions of the Crimean Pedagogical Inst., Book 1, 1927, p. 1 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. 4).
    The Central Office for Professional Education.Google Scholar
  5. 5).
    A part of Petrograd where a number of research institutes and the Polytechnic Institute were and continue to be situated.Google Scholar
  6. 6).
    The People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade.Google Scholar
  7. 7).
    M.S. Sominsky. Abram Fyodorovich Ioffe. Moscow-Leningrad. Acad. of Sci. of the USSR Publ., 1964 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  8. 8).
    «Rentgenovsky» in Russian.Google Scholar
  9. 9).
    P.P. Lazarev, by the way, was a personal doctor of his teacher’s.Google Scholar
  10. 10).
    See the paper by M.I. Nemenov in: «Gosudarstvenny rentgenovsky, radiologichesky i rakovy institut», Leningrad, 1928 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  11. 11).
    Russian abbreviation: RFHO.Google Scholar
  12. 12).
    ZhRFKhO, ser. phys., v. 50, NN 7–9, 1919, p. 278 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  13. 13).
    Archives of the PTI, f. # 274, p. 9.Google Scholar
  14. 14).
    M.S. Sominsky. Op. cit., p. 253.Google Scholar
  15. 15).
    The Department for Foreign Trade.Google Scholar
  16. 16).
    Archives of A.F. Ioffe PTI, f. N10, pp. 1-20; f. N.14, pp. 1-26.Google Scholar
  17. 17).
    It is interesting to note that similar experiments on the determination of atomic magnetic moments had been planned and prepared (but not implemented) in 1920 by N.N. Semenov and P.L. Kapitza (in 1920 the Physical-Technical Department of the Rentgenovsky and Radiologichesky Institute did not have the experimental basis required for these experiments). The publication of this paper was delayed until 1922. O. Stern and W. Gerlach knew nothing about the research by Kapitza and Semenov. In 1943 Stern won the Nobel Prize for his study of molecular beams and the discovery of the magnetic moment of a proton.Google Scholar
  18. 18).
    N.N. Semenov. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, v. 5, p. 57, 1925 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  19. 19).
    We would like to note here, as a characteristic example, that J.I.’s paper on adsorption (1924) was translated into English in 1960 and published as a special issue by the California Radiation Laboratory in the USA.Google Scholar
  20. 20).
    J.I. Frenkel. «Collection of Selected Papers», v. II, Moscow-Leningrad, AN SSSR, Publ., 1958, p. 253 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  21. 21).
    Archives of the PTI, f. # 14, p. 19.Google Scholar
  22. 22).
    G. Hevesy studied the diffusion of a naturally radioactive lead isotope, the so-called radium D in the crystal of a normal (lacking the radioactive Pb isotope) PbCl. For the invention of the tagged atom method G. Hevesy won the Nobel Prize in 1943.Google Scholar
  23. 23).
    A proper equilibrium of an atom occurs at a site on the crystal lattice, an improper one at an intersite gap.Google Scholar
  24. 24).
    J.I. Frenkel. «Collection of Selected Papers», v. II. Moscow-Leningrad, AN SSSR, Publ., 1958, p. 256 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  25. 25).
    See, for instance: J.I. Frenkel. «Collection of Selected Papers», v. III, Moscow-Leningrad, AN SSSR Publ., 1959, p. 202 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  26. 26).
    Ch. Kittel. «Introduction to Solid State Physics», Ch. 17. N.Y.: Wiley, Z. Chapman and Hall, 1954.Google Scholar
  27. 27).
    J.I. Frenkel. «Collection of Selected Papers», p. 257 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  28. 28).
    P.A.M. Dirac. Theory of Position. In: «Atomic Nucleus», Moscow-Leningrad, GTTI, 1934, p. 133 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  29. 29).
    See c.f. V.S. Vavilov. Uspekhi Fizicheskih Nauk, 1964, vol. 84, N3, p. 431 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  30. 30).
    M.S. Sominsky. «Abram Fyodorovich Ioffe». Moscow-Leningrad, AN SSSR Publ., 1964, p. 284 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  31. 31).
    A sector in Lesnoe.Google Scholar
  32. 32).
    In: «Twentieth Anniversary of the Engineering and Physics Department of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute», Leningrad, 1939, p. 41 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  33. 33).
    O.D. Khvol’son. Pedagogicheskaya mysl’, # 1, 1923, p. 69 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  34. 34).
    I.E. Tamm. UFN, v. 76, N3, 1962, p. 401 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  35. 35).
    Ya.N. Spielrein. «Vector Calculus for Electrical Engineering and Physics», p. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, ONTI, 1936, p. 3 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  36. 36).
    Chief Scientific Council of Narkompros (Russian abbreviation).Google Scholar
  37. 37).
    S. Belov. «Knigoizdateli Sabashnikovy» («The Sabashnikovs Publishers»). Moscow, 1974, pages 134 and 146 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  38. 38).
    Meaning: «At the Border of the Centuries».Google Scholar
  39. 39).
    Uspekhi Fizicheskih Nauk, v. 57, N3, 1955, p. 350 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  40. 40).
    In his letter to Ehrenfest in 1922 Einstein wrote: «I seldom meet people in whose company I’m in good spirits. I need our frienship even more than you do.» (Quoted by: K. Zeelig. «Albert Einstein».)Google Scholar
  41. 41).
    A. Einstein. «Out of My Later Years». Phil.libr., New York, 1950, p. 236.Google Scholar
  42. 42).
    «Meeting with Physicists» (in Russian).Google Scholar
  43. 43).
    Literature about P.S. Ehrenfest that we would especially recommend: M. Klein. «Paul Ehrenfest, Vol. 1. The Making of a Theoretical Physicist». Amsterdam-London, 1970. See also: V.Ya. Frenkel. «Paul Ehrenfest». Moscow: Atomizdat, 1977; «Ehrenfest-Ioffe. Scientific Correspondence». Ed. by V.Ya. Frenkel. Leningrad, Nauka, 1990 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  44. 44).
    We read in the Leningrad «Vechernyaya Krasnaya Gazeta» of 17 September 1924: «A vigorous discussion followed Professor J.I. Frenkel’s report «Foundations of the Electron Theory of Metals». Professor Ehrenfest of Leiden University participated very actively in it.» According to the same newspaper (of September 18), Ehrenfest also spoke about Frenkel’s other paper on the electron theory of solids.Google Scholar
  45. 45).
    J.I.’s arguments were in the spirit of the Rutherford-Bohr atomic model.Google Scholar
  46. 46).
    J.I. Frenkel. Theory of Metals. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1933, p. 8 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  47. 47).
    Corresponding materials are published in the paper by V.Ya. Frenkel, P. Josephson, Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, v. 160, N11, 1990, pp. 103–134 (in Russian).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48).
    The assurance of Ehrenfest that Frenkel would return to Russia was caused by the corresponding demands of the Rockefeller Foundation whose aim was to support scientists of various nationalities.Google Scholar
  49. 49).
    Ehrenfest was not alone in reacting like this to de Broglie’s paper; the majority of western theoretical physicists shared his view. Ironically, E. Schrödinger said that he did «not want to talk about such nonsense» when P. Debye suggested that he review this paper at a seminar. And it is while reading this paper that Schrödinger came to the equation now figuring under his name. (See P.L. Kapitza’s paper in «Voprosy Istorii Estestvoznaniya i Tekhniki» # 18, Moscow, 1965, p. 25 (in Russian).)Google Scholar
  50. 50).
    «Exploring the History of Nuclear Physics» (Proc. of AIP Conf. #7). Ed. Ch. Weiner. N.Y, 1972.Google Scholar
  51. 51).
    In a private letter to the author of this book.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor Ya. Frenkel
    • 1
  1. 1.A.E. Ioffe Physico-Technical InstituteSt. Petersburg K-21Russia

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