The Beginning: Family, Gymnasium, Universities

  • Victor Ya. Frenkel


Jacov Il’ich Frenkel was born on 10 February 1894, in the city of Rostov-on-Don. His father Il’ya Abramovich Frenkel played a major role in the formation of his character, so it is worthwhile to tell more about him.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1).
    Vladimir Grigor’evich Bogoraz-Tan (1865-1936) was a member of «Narodnaya Volya», later a specialist in ethnography, a linguist, a writer and a professor at Leningrad State University.Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    The name of I.A. Frenkel figures in the dictionary of the «Narodnaya Volya» members; see: Activists of the Revolutionary Movement in Russia. Bibliographical Dictionary, v. 2, # 4, p. 1853.Google Scholar
  3. 3).
    The friendship between I.A. Frenkel and Andrey Matveevich Lezhava (1870-1937) lasted many years. In the Soviet years A.M. Lezhava was the Deputy People’s Commissar for Foreign Trade and Crop-Growing.Google Scholar
  4. 4).
    The Cetral State Archives of the October Revolution. Special Department. Year 1901. File #460.Google Scholar
  5. 5).
    The interest of the police in P.Ya. Ryss, judging by the materials from his file, was due to the fact that his two brothers were active members of the «Narodnaya Volya». One of them was executed in the 1900s, the other sent to penal servitude.Google Scholar
  6. 6).
    It was written for a directory «Who is Important in Science» and is found in the book J.I. Frenkel: Memoirs. Letters. Documents. Leningrad, Nauka, 1986 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  7. 7).
    Ya.M. Kruger (1868-1940) graduated from the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts under the well-known painter V.G. Makovsky. It is interesting to note that one of the few pictures by Kruger kept now in the Minsk Painting Gallery is a portrait of a violinist Yu.G. Zhukhovitsky, who taught J.I. to play the violin.Google Scholar
  8. 8).
    He was an active participant in the October Revolution in Petrograd, then did revolutionary work in the Crimea where he met, in particular, J.I. After the revolution E.E. Essen was the People’s Commissar of the Goskontrol’; in the last years of his life he was the Rector of the Academy of Arts in Leningrad.Google Scholar
  9. 9).
    Frenkel read the Russian version translated by V.P. Sheremet’evsky.Google Scholar
  10. 10).
    The Terioki pigeon-loft is the attic of the summer house in Terioki, a country place near St. Petersburg the Frenkels rented in 1910. J.I. had established his office there.Google Scholar
  11. 11).
    St. Petersburg, 1876, v. I-IV (in Russian).Google Scholar
  12. 12).
    I.E. Tamm. UFN, v. 76, # 3, p. 401, 1962 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  13. 13).
    Baby is Victor, the fourth and youngest son of the Frenkels, born in 1910. J.I.painted his portrait.Google Scholar
  14. 14).
    See Frenkel. Memoirs, p. 468 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  15. 15).
    State Historical Archive of the Leningrad Region, Record group 14, inventory 1, file 11270, p. 30 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  16. 16).
    J.I. Frenkel, ZhRFKhO, part phys., v. 49, # 2, pp. 110–111, 1917 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  17. 17).
    «On the geeral nature of the life processes»; for more about this paper by Frenkel see further on.Google Scholar
  18. 18).
    The paper on the double layer in «Philosophical Magazine», v. 33, p. 297, 1917.Google Scholar
  19. 19).
    State Historical Archives of the Leningrad Region, record group 14, inventory 1, file 11270, p. 30.Google Scholar
  20. 20).
    See the previous footnote.Google Scholar
  21. 21).
    It seems that either the paper «On atomic models» or «Magnetic origin of mass» is meant.Google Scholar
  22. 22).
    A.F. Ioffe. «My Life and Work». Moscow-Leningrad, GTTI, 1933, p. 20 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  23. 23).
    N.M. Krylov became world famous for his works on nonlinear mechanics, mostly done with his student, future Academician N.N. Bogolyubov. N.M. Krylov strongly encouraged the transition from the «linear prejudices» to «nonlinear psychology», to use the terms of Professor S.E. Khaykin.Google Scholar
  24. 24).
    J.I. Frenkel. «The General Course of Physics. Introduction. 1. The position of physics in the system of natural sciences». Publishing Committee of Students of Tavrichesky University, pp. 1-15.Google Scholar
  25. 25).
    J.I. stressed this thought many times later. See, for instance: A.I. Kitaygorodsky. «Physics is My Profession». Moscow, Molodaya Gvardiya, 1965, p. 85 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  26. 26).
    The Master thesis is meant.Google Scholar
  27. 27).
    The second one was probably Professor L.A. Vishnevsky.Google Scholar
  28. 28).
    Apparently, «Optics» by P. Druee and «Elements of Higher Algebra» by D.A. Grave.Google Scholar
  29. 29).
    UFN, V. 76, # 3, p. 405, 1962 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  30. 30).
    N. Wiener. «I am a Mathematician». New York: Doubleday & Co, 1956.Google Scholar
  31. 31).
    Frenkel meant here his work at the Crimea Narkompros under the Soviet power.Google Scholar
  32. 32).
    On the G. Cantor works in the set theory.Google Scholar
  33. 33).
    The university was not moved to Yalta.Google Scholar
  34. 34).
    UFN, v. 76, # 3. p. 406, 1962 (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor Ya. Frenkel
    • 1
  1. 1.A.E. Ioffe Physico-Technical InstituteSt. Petersburg K-21Russia

Personalised recommendations